Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Experimental Investigation of the Applicability of Bitumen Stabilized Sabkha Soil as Landfill Liner in Kuwait

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



A paucity of soil in Kuwait has led to the country using waste sabkha soil for landfill liners. However, sabkha soil is likely to collapse on contact with water as it has a high salt content, so stabilising the soils and employing them as barrier materials is a cost-effective environmental conservation measure. This paper investigates the practicality of the use of stabilised sabkha soil as a hydraulic barrier to leachate percolation. Long-term permeability studies using distilled water together with soil characterisation studies were conducted on different soil samples. Mixing percentages of 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% of bitumen content were selected by dry weight of sabkha; these represented the extremes of percentages. To meet the limit value of hydraulic conductivity for waste landfills of 1×10-9 m/s, it was found that the 12% stabilising percentage was suitable, although it was higher than the optimum percentage value. The mixture has a high possibility for landfill usage and the assessment indicates a clear intention to achieve environmental sustainability.
Copyright © 2021 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Bitumen; Soil; Hydraulic Conductivity

Full Text:



A. AlManssoor, Obstacles and opportunities in planning and implementing integrated sustainable municipal solid waste management (ISMSWM) in Kuwait - a Gulf cooperation council (GCC) country, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Geography, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2020.

A. Al Lahou, and M. Alsabbaagh, Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management in the State of Kuwait, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol. 10(Issue 2):51-56, January 2019.

A. R. Al Rashed, The Environmental Impacts of Kabd Landfill on the Soil and Groundwater in Kuwait: A Case Study, International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 9(Issue 5):255-271, May 2018.

S. Zafar, The Menace of Landfill in Kuwait. IOP Publishing EcoMENA Web: Echoing Sustainability in MENA, November 2019.
Retrieved from:

J.M. Alhumoud, F. Al-Kandari, Analysis and Overview of Industrial Solid Waste Management in Kuwait, Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal Vol. 19(Issue 5):520-532, August 2008.

A.F. Al-Yaqout, M.F. Hamoda, M. Zafar, Characteristics of Wastes, Leachate, and Gas at Landfills Operated in Arid Climate, Practical Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic and Radioactive Waste Management Vol. 9(Issue 2): 97-102, April 2005.

The Industrial Bank of Kuwait (IBK), Assessment of Solid Waste Sector in the State of Kuwait (Kuwait, 2010, pp. 8-17).

A.F. Al-Yaqout, Solid Waste Characteristics in an Operating Landfill in a Developing Country, Kuwait Journal of science Vol. 39(Issue 2B): 1-22, December 2012.

A.F. Al-Yaqout, and F.K. Townsend, Strategy for Landfill Design in Arid Regions, Practical Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic and Radioactive Waste Management Vol. 5(Issue. 1): 2-13, January 2001.

A. Alnuaim, N. Alsanabani, and A. Alshenawy, Monotonic and Cyclic Behavior of Salt-Encrusted Flat (Sabkha) Soil, International Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 19(Issue 1-2): 187-198, September 2020.

F.A. Al-Otaibi, Variation of Sabkha Soil Permeability Associated with Ions Dissolution during Distilled Water Leaching, Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 14(Issue 4): 525-533, August 2020.

F.A. Al-Otaibi, Dissolution Behavior of Corrosive Anions from Sabkha Soil Southern Kuwait Under Long Term Leaching. International Journal of GEOMATE, Vol. 19(Issue 74), 138-144, June 2020.

O.Y. Debbab, B. Moussai, A. Messad, A Laboratory Study of the Collapse Behaviour of a Compacted Sabkha Soil, Soils and Rocks, Vol. 43(Issue 2): 181-190, June 2020.

R. Vandanapu, and J.R. Omer, Infrastructure Damage Due to Dewatering Without Considering Land Use History, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 38(Issue 7): 5623-5632, May 2020.

C. Jung, R. Ceglarek, T. Clauvelin, M. Ayeldeen and D. Kim, Deep Soil Mixing in Sabkha Soils for Foundation Support in United Arab Emirates, International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering, Vol. 6(Issue 1), June 2020.

M. B. D. Elsawy, and A. Lakhouit, A review on the Impact of Salinity on Foundation Soil of Coastal Infrastructures and its Implications to North of Red Sea Coastal Constructions, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 13(Issue 555), June 2020.

Z.A. Kazmi, Improvement in Shear Strength Characteristics of Desert Sand Using Shredded Plastic Waste. Geomechanics and Engineering, Vol.20(Issue 6): 497-503, March 2020.

H.S. Al-Alawi, A.A. Ganiyu, and A. Badr, Stabilisation of sohar's sabkha soil using waste gypsum plasterboard. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 846, pp. 1-10, Langkawi, Malaysia, May 2020.

L. Wei, S. Chai, Q. Guo, P. Wang, and F. Li, Mechanical Properties and Stabilizing Mechanism of Stabilized Saline Soils with Four Stabilizers. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Vol. 79(Issue 104):5341-5354 June 2020.

F.A. Al-Otaibi, F.M. Wegian, A.A. Alnaki, S.K.H. Almutairi, R.M. Singhd, Effect of Bitumen Addition on the Long-Term Permeability of Sabkha Soil. Kuwait Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 39(Issue. 2): 131-148, December 2012.

F.A. Al-Otaibi, F.M. Wegian, Investigating the Effect of Bitumen Content on Ion Dissolution in Bitumen Mixed Sabkha Soil, Kuwait Journal of Science and Engineering Vol. 39(Issue. 1B): 93-109, June 2012.

American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM), D-422 Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soil (Vol.04.08), 1998, Philadelphia, Pa, USA.

American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM), D-4318 Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Standard Test method for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils (Vol.04.08), 1995, Philadelphia, Pa, USA.

American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM), D-2487 Annual book of ASTM standards, standard classification of soils for engineering purposes (Unified Soil Classification System), 1999, West Conshohocken, Philadelphia (Pa): American Society for Testing and Materials.

American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM), D 854-14 Standard test methods for specific gravity of soil solids by water pycnometer, 2014, West Conshohocken, Philadelphia (Pa): American Society for Testing and Materials.

American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM), D1557-12e1 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3(2,700 kN m/m3)), 2008, Philadelphia, Pa, USA.

F.A. Al-Otaibi, An assessment of the possibility of stabilizing sabkha soils using oil lake residue-reuse of waste materials. PhD dissertation, Dept. Civil Eng., Cardiff University, Wales, UK, 2006.

F.A. Al-Otaibi, and H.M. Aldaihani, Influence of Bitumen addition on sabkha shear strength characteristics under dry and soaked conditions. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Science Vol. 11(Issue 4): 1199-1209, November 2018.

H.M. Aldaihani, F.A. Al-Otaibi, and D.S. Alrukaibi, Investigation of Permeability Behavior of Wet Oil Lake Contaminated Sandy Soil at Al-Ahmadi in Kuwait, International Journal of GEOMATE, Vol. 19(Issue 73): 141-147, September 2020.

K. Iqbal, C. Xu, H. Nasir, M. Alam, A. Farooq, and E.J. Williams, Effect of Used Motor Oil and Bitumen as Additive on the Permeability and Mechanical Properties of Low Plastic Soil, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2020(Issue 1): 1-10, July 2020.

Adeyanju, A., Thermal Pyrolysis for the Transformation of Used Abandon Tire to Liquid Fuel, (2021) International Journal on Energy Conversion (IRECON), 9 (3), pp. 85-93.

Bellahkim, M., Gueraoui, K., Mahboub, M., Taibi, M., Belgada, R., Debenest, G., Application of the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model (ADM1) for the Valorization of Maize Residues in Morocco, (2019) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 7 (6), pp. 220-226.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize