Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Mix Design for Sustainable High Strength Concrete by Using GGBS and Micro Silica as Supplementary Cementitious Materials

Moslih Amer Salih(1*), Shamil Kamil Ahmed(2)

(1) Surveying Techniques Department, Technical Institute of Babylon, Iraq
(2) TECH REMIX LLC, PO Box 4778, Al Jurf Industrial Area, Ajman, United Arab Emirates
(*) Corresponding author



This study has explored a new mix design for the production of sustainable high strength concrete that can be used successfully in hot weather. Ordinary Portland cement has been replaced by 47% Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and 5.9% Micro-silica in order produce sustainable concrete with high durability and better mechanical properties. Crushed fine sand and Red Dune sand have been used in order to replace the shortage in natural fine sand and also to increase the compactness and filling the gabs. Durability tests have included water absorption, water permeability and penetration of chloride ions. Compressive strength, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength have been measured for one mix in order to investigate the mechanical properties resulted from this mix design. The results have showed a successful mix design with more durable and better performance concrete compared to 100% OPC concrete.
Copyright © 2020 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Mix Design; High Strength; Sustainable Concrete; GGBS; Micro Silica; Red Dune Sand

Full Text:



Mehta P. K., Monteiro P. J., Concrete: microstructure, properties, and materials. McGraw-Hill New York; 2006.

Neville A. M., Properties of concrete. Longman London; 2011.

Davidovits J. High-Alkali Cements for 21st Century Concretes. Special Publication. 1994;144.

Manuel Torres-Carrasco, Monique T. Tognonvi, Arezki Tagnit-Hamou, Francisca Puertas, Durability of Alkali-Activated Slag Concretes Prepared Using Waste Glass as Alternative Activator. Materials Journal. 2015, 112(6).

M. Sahmaran, G. Yıldırım, G. Hasıloglu Aras, S. Bahadır Keskin, O. K. Keskin, M. Lachemi, Self-Healing of Cementitious Composites to Reduce High CO2 Emissions. Materials Journal. 2017;114(1).

Abd El.Aziz M, Abd El.Aleem S, Heikal M, El. Didamony H. Hydration and durability of sulphate-resisting and slag cement blends in Caron's Lake water. Cement and Concrete Research. 2005;35(8):1592-600.

Khan MI, Siddique R. Utilization of silica fume in concrete: Review of durability properties. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2011;57:30-5.

Hanif A, Lu Z, Li Z. Utilization of fly ash cenosphere as lightweight filler in cement-based composites – A review. Construction and Building Materials. 2017;144:373-84.

Li G, Zhao X. Properties of concrete incorporating fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag. Cement and Concrete Composites. 2003;25(3):293-9.

Berndt ML. Properties of sustainable concrete containing fly ash, slag and recycled concrete aggregate. Construction and Building Materials. 2009;23(7):2606-13.

Liu Y, Zhou X, Lv C, Yang Y, Liu T. Use of Silica Fume and GGBS to Improve Frost Resistance of ECC with High-Volume Fly Ash. Advances in Civil Engineering. 2018;2018:11.

Zhou W, Yan C, Duan P, Liu Y, Zhang Z, Qiu X, et al. A comparative study of high- and low-Al2O3 fly ash based-geopolymers: The role of mix proportion factors and curing temperature. Materials & Design. 2016;95:63-74.

Rashad AM. A comprehensive overview about the influence of different admixtures and additives on the properties of alkali-activated fly ash. Materials & Design. 2014;53:1005-25.

Xuan D, Poon CS, Zheng W. Management and sustainable utilization of processing wastes from ready-mixed concrete plants in construction: A review. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2018;136:238-47.

Paranhos RS, Cazacliu BG, Sampaio CH, Petter CO, Neto RO, Huchet F. A sorting method to value recycled concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2016;112:2249-58.

He Z, Zhu X, Wang J, Mu M, Wang Y. Comparison of CO2 emissions from OPC and recycled cement production. Construction and Building Materials. 2019;211:965-73.

Al-Harthy AS, Halim MA, Taha R, Al-Jabri KS. The properties of concrete made with fine dune sand. Construction and Building Materials. 2007;21(8):1803-8.

Haifeng L, Jurong M, Yiying W, Jianguo N. Influence of desert sand on the mechanical properties of concrete subjected to impact loading. Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica. 2017;30(6):583-95.

Zhang G, Song J, Yang J, Liu X. Performance of mortar and concrete made with a fine aggregate of desert sand. Building and Environment. 2006;41(11):1478-81.

(BS) BSI. 196-6:1992, Methods of Testing Cement. Part 6: Determination of Fineness`1992.

EN) BSIB. 197-1:2000. Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements, 2000.

EN) BSIB. 15167-1:2006 Ground granulated blast furnace slag for use in concrete, mortar and grout. 2006.

(BS) BSI. BS 1881: Part 122 :Part 122. Method for determination of water absorption. 1983.

(EN) BSIB. BS EN 12390-8:2000, Part 8: Depth of penetration of water under pressure. 2000.

ASTM. C1202-17a, Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Concrete's Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration. 2017.

Kumar MP, Mini KM, Rangarajan M. Ultrafine GGBS and calcium nitrate as concrete admixtures for improved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Construction and Building Materials. 2018;182:249-57.

Li LG, Zheng JY, Zhu J, Kwan AKH. Combined usage of micro-silica and nano-silica in concrete: SP demand, cementing efficiencies and synergistic effect. Construction and Building Materials. 2018;168:622-32.

Oner A, Akyuz S. An experimental study on optimum usage of GGBS for the compressive strength of concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites. 2007;29(6):505-14.

Luo FJ, He L, Pan Z, Duan WH, Zhao XL, Collins F. Effect of very fine particles on workability and strength of concrete made with dune sand. Construction and Building Materials. 2013;47:131-7.

Elahi A, Basheer PAM, Nanukuttan SV, Khan QUZ. Mechanical and durability properties of high performance concretes containing supplementary cementitious materials. Construction and Building Materials. 2010;24(3):292-9.

Kolias SG, C. The effect of paste volume and of water content on the strength and water absorption of concrete. Cement & Concrete Composites. 2005;27:211-6.

Ng P-L, Kwan AK-H, Li LG. Packing and film thickness theories for the mix design of high-performance concrete. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A. 2016;17(10):759-81.

Kwan AKH, Wong HHC. Packing density of cementitious materials: part 2—packing and flow of OPC + PFA + CSF. Materials and Structures. 2007;41(4):773.

Yazıcı H. The effect of silica fume and high-volume Class C fly ash on mechanical properties, chloride penetration and freeze–thaw resistance of self-compacting concrete. Construction and Building Materials. 2008;22(4):456-62.

Salih MA. Strength and durability of high performance concrete containing fly ash and micro silica. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET). 2018;9(9):104-14.

Ahmed, S., Salih, M., Durability of Concrete Containing Different Levels of Supplementary Cementitious Materials, (2018) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 9 (6), pp. 241-247.

Menéndez, E., Evaluation and Gradation of Simultaneous Damage in Concrete Affected by Alkali-Silica Reaction and Sulfate Attack, (2019) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 7 (1), pp. 1-8.

Sapountzakis, E., An Improved Model for the Analysis of Plates Stiffened by Parallel Beams Including Creep and Shrinkage Effects: Application to Concrete or to Composite Steel-Concrete Structures, (2018) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 6 (2), pp. 57-70.

Benoudjafer, I., Labbaci, B., Benoudjafer, I., An Experimental Investigation on the Thermal Effect on the Mechanical Behavior of Concrete, (2017) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 8 (2), pp. 64-71.

Tayeb, R., Soltane, L., Tafraoui, A., Abderrahmane, M., Towards an Economical Local Eco-Material in Sustainable Concrete, (2017) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 8 (4), pp. 152-159.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2020 Praise Worthy Prize