Piano Key Weir Hydraulics: Experimental Study of Flow Patterns and Investigation of the Sloped Crest A-Type PKW
(*) Corresponding author
Piano Key Weir is a cost-effective and hydraulically performant solution for spillways, considered as a Climate Change adaptation as well. In order to enhance the understanding of the hydraulic behavior of the A-type PKW and to investigate the effects of introducing a crest slope, an experimental study has been performed. This new configuration aims to reduce the discharge capacity at low heads requested in some cases for flood management purposes, while keeping the same maximum reservoir level. In this paper, three models have been tested first in order to investigate the scale effects and the flow patterns in terms of discharge capacity, velocity field and nappe behavior. Then, seven PKW configurations with different crest slopes have been studied. Results confirm the relevant influence of the scale effect at low heads. The comparison of the experimental discharges with the ones predicted by the published analytical formulations, inside their validity fields, shows, a similar trend within ±15% but not identical results. Clinging, leaping, springing and drowned flow regimes ranges have been quantified. The velocity fields have also been analyzed. The results of the sloped crest PKW investigation reveal that the discharge capacity is significantly reduced at low relative heads H/P<0.35 but, it matches the standard model capacity for H/P>0.6 with a maximum deviation of 10%.
Copyright © 2019 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.
F. Lempérière, A. Ouamane, A new cost-effective solution for spillways, International Journal of Hydropower & Dams, Vol. 10(Issue 5):144-149, 2003.
R. M. Anderson, B. Tullis, Comparison of Piano Key and rectangular Labyrinth Weir hydraulics, J. Hydraulic Eng. 138(4): 358–361, 2012.
F. Lempérière, A. Ouamane, General comments on Labyrinths and Piano Key Weirs:The past and present, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs-PKW 2011, 17-24, CRC Press, London, 2011.
J. Pralong, J. Vermeulen, B. Blancher, F. Laugier, S. Erpicum, O. Machiels, M. Pirotton, J.-L. Boillat, M. Leite Ribeiro & A.J. Schleiss, A naming convention for the piano key weirs geometrical parameters, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs-PKW 2011, 271–278, CRC Press, London, 2011a.
P. Blanc, F. Lempérière, Labyrinth spillways have a promising future, International Journal of Hydropower & Dams, Vol. 8(Issue 4):129-131, 2001.
S. Erpicum, P. Archambeau, M. Pirotton & B.J. Dewals. Geometric parameters influence on Piano Key Weir hydraulic performances, 5th IAHR International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures, Brisbane, Australia, 25–27 June: 1–8, 2014.
A. Ouamane, F. Lempérière, Design of a new economic shape of weir, International Symposium on Dams in the Societies of the 21st Century, pp. 463-470, Barcelona, Spain, 2006.
F. Laugier, Design and construction of the first Piano Key Weir (PKW) spillway at the Goulours dam, International Journal of Hydropower & Dams, Vol. 14(Issue 5):94-101, 2007.
M. Ho Ta Khanh, The Piano Keys Weir: 15 years of Research & Development-Prospect, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II-PKW 2013, 3-14, CRC Press, London, 2014.
Technical Advancements in Spillway design-Progress and Innovations from 1985 to 2015, Chapter 6-Piano Key Weirs spillways (Technical Committee on Hydraulics for dams).
S. Erpicum, P. Archambeau, B. Dewals & M. Pirotton, Hydraulics of Piano Key Weirs: A review, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs III-PKW 2017, 27–36, CRC Press, London, 2017.
O. Machiels, S. Erpicum, B. Dewals, P. Archambeau & M. Pirotton, Experimental observation of flow characteristics over a Piano Key Weir, J. Hydraulic Res. 49(3): 359–366, 2011a.
M. Pfister, H. Chanson, Discussion Scale effects in physical hydraulic engineering models, J. Hydraulic Res. 50(2): 244–246, 2012.
M. Leite Ribeiro, M. Pfister, A.J. Schleiss, J.L. Boillat, Hydraulic design of A-type Piano Key Weirs, Journal of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 50(Issue 4):400-408, 2012.
M. Pfister, E. Battisacco, G. De Cesare & A. J. Schliess, Scale effects related to the rating curve of cylindrically crested Piano Key weirs, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II-PKW 2013, 73–82, CRC Press, London, 2014.
S. Erpicum, A. Silvestri, B. Dewals, P. Archambeau, M. Pirotton, M. Colombié, L. Faramond, Escouloubre PKW: Prototype versus scaled model, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II-PKW 2013, 65-72, CRC Press, London, 2014.
S. Erpicum, B.P. Tullis, M. Lodomez, P. Archambeau, B. Dewals & M. Pirotton, Scale effects in physical piano key weirs models, J. Hydraulic Res. 54(6): 692–698, 2016.
L. Young Nathan, Size-Scale Effects of Nonlinear Weir Hydraulics, M. S. Thesis, Utah State University, Logan, 2018.
M. Leite Ribeiro, J.L. Boillat, and A.J. Schleiss, Experimental parametric study for hydraulic design of PKWs, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs 2011, 183–190, CRC Press, London, 2011.
O. Machiels, Experimental study of the hydraulic behavior of Piano Key Weirs. PhD thesis, HECE research unit, University of Liège, Belgium, 2012. http://hdl.handle.net/2268/128006.
A. Kabiri-Samani & A. Javaheri, Discharge coefficient for free and submerged flow over Piano Key weirs, J. Hydraulic Res., 50(1), 114–120, 2012.
M. Pfister, A.J. Schleiss, Comparison of hydraulic design equations for A-type Piano Key weirs, Proc. Intl. Conf. Water Storage and Hydropower Development for Africa (Africa 2013), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), CD 13.05, 2013.
O. Machiels, M. Pirotton, P. Archambeau, B.J. Dewals & S. Erpicum, Experimental parametric study and design of Piano Key Weirs, J. Hydraulic Res. 52(3): 326–335, 2014.
F. Lempérière, New Labyrinth weirs triple the spillways discharge – Data for an easy design of P. K.Weir, 2009. Available online on www.hydrocoop.org
M. Ho Ta Khanh, T.C. Hien, and N.T. Hai, Main results of the P.K weir model tests in Vietnam (2004 to 2010), Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs-PKW 2011, 191–198, CRC Press, London, 2011.
G. M. Cicero & J. R. Delisle, Discharge characteristics of Piano Key weirs under submerged flows, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs 2013, 101–109, CRC Press, London, 2014.
H. Nguyen Thanh, T. Tang Duc, M. Ho Ta Khanh, Research on Piano Key Weirs capacity for free and submerged flows, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs III-PKW 2017, 55–64, CRC Press, London, 2017.
A. Ouamane, Nine years of study of the Piano Key Weir in the university laboratory of Biskra “lessons and reflections, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinths and Piano Key Weirs-PKW 2011, 51-58, CRC Press, London, 2011.
O. Machiels, S. Erpicum, P. Archambeau, B.J. Dewals & M. Pirotton, Piano Key Weirs, experimental study of an efficient solution for rehabilitation, FRIAR, Milano: Wessex Institute of Technology, 95–106, 2010.
O. Machiels, S. Erpicum, P. Archambeau, B. J. Dewals & M. Pirotton, Influence of the Piano Key Weir height on its discharge capacity, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs-PKW 2011, 59-66, CRC Press, London, 2011b.
R. M. Anderson & B.P. Tullis, Influence of Piano Key Weir geometry on discharge, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs-PKW 2011, 75-80, CRC Press, London, 2011.
J. Pralong, F. Montarros, B. Blancher & F. Laugier, A sensitivity analysis of Piano Key Weirs geometrical parameters based on 3D numerical modeling, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs-PKW 2011, 133-140, CRC Press, London, 2011b.
V. Lefebvre, J. Vermeulen, & B. Blancher, Influence of geometrical parameters on PK-Weirs discharge with 3D numerical analysis, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II-PKW 2013, 49-56, CRC Press, London, 2014.
J. Vermeulen, F. Laugier, L. Faramond & C. Gille, Lessons learnt from design and construction of EDF first Piano Key Weirs, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs-PKW 2011, 215–224, CRC Press, London, 2011.
A. Laiadi, B. Athmani, F. Belaabed & A. Ouamane, The effect of the geometric shape of the alveoli on the performance of Piano Key Weirs, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs III-PKW 2017, 93–100, CRC Press, London, 2017.
O. Machiels, S. Erpicum, P. Archambeau, B. Dewals & M. Pirotton, Parapet Wall Effect on Piano Key Weir Efficiency, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 139(6), 506–511, 2013.
F. Lempérière, J. Guo, Low cost increase of dams’ storage and flood mitigation: The piano keys weir, Nineteenth ICID Congress, Beijing, Q.53, R.2.06., 2005.
A. Aboulhassane, S. Rhouzlane, D. Ouazar, M. H. Sounny Slitine, Piano Key Weirs: An innovative technology for adapting at low cost the Moroccan Hydraulic Park to Climate Change, International Symposium of Environment and Sustainable Development, Rabat, Morocco, October 2016.
Aboulhassane, A., Rhouzlane, S., Ouazar, D., Sounny Slitine, M., Assessment of Piano Key Weirs Cost-Effectiveness: a Moroccan Case Study, (2017) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 8 (5), pp. 212-220.
A. Lade, A. Jaltade, J. Kulkarni, M. Kokate, A. Lavate and R. Harihar , Experimental study of different sill geometries in Piano Key Weirs, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET).Volume: 6, Issue: 2, 30-37, 2015.
F. Lempérière et al., Bulletin 144: Cost savings on dams (International Commission on Large Dams, 2010).
M. Leite Ribeiro, M. Pfister M., A. J. Schleiss, Overview of Piano Key weir prototypes and scientific model investigations, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs II-PKW 2013, 273- 281, CRC Press, London, 2014.
W. Boiten, M. G. Bos, D. A. Kraijenhoff van de Leur, H. Oostinga, R. H. Pitlo, A. H. de Vries, J. Wijdieks, Discharge measurement structures (International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvements/IRLI, 1976).
O. Le Doucen, M. Leite Ribeiro, J.-L. Boillat, A. Schleiss, F. Laugier, Parametric study of PK-weirs capacity, SHF: « 21st-century Essential Hydraulic-Tools Models », Lyon, France, 2009.
M. C. Johnson, Discharge coefficient analysis for flat-topped and sharp-crested weirs, Irrigation Science 19(3), 133–137, 2000.
B. Crookston, B. P. Tullis, Hydraulic Design and Analysis of Labyrinth Weirs: Nappe Aeration, Instability, and Vibration, J. Irrigation and Drainage Engng. 139(5): 371-377, 2013.
A. Mehboudi, J. Attari & S.A. Hosseini, Flow regimes over trapezoidal Piano Key Weirs, Intl. Conf. on Labyrinth and Piano Key Weirs III-PKW 2017, 65–73, CRC Press, London, 2017.
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Design of Small Dams (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1987, 339-434).
- There are currently no refbacks.
Please send any question about this web site to firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize