Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Durability and Structural Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete: a Review

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



The waste generated from construction and demolition is considered the major waste produced in the world in terms of the volume. This waste can be recycled and reused in the production of new concrete for new construction projects such as roads, buildings and bridges. This can help in reducing the need for new natural materials such as coarse and fine aggregate, reduce the overall construction project cost and enhance the environment, which is gaining more attention and being encouraged by most world countries these days. Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is being investigated in research and used in many construction projects over the last 20 years. In this paper, a detailed review of recent research conducted on RAC in terms of concrete durability, characteristics and structural performance under different loading conditions is presented. Finally, conclusions and future trends of research associated with RAC are presented in order to efficiently promote more use of RAC.
Copyright © 2019 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Recycled Aggregate Concrete; Treatment; Durability; Admixtures; Environment

Full Text:



CSI, Cement Sustainability Initiative. Recycling Concrete Report 2015, 2014.

Center of Science and Environment, Construction and demolition waste, Tughlakabad Institutional Area, New Delhi 110 062, India, 2016.

Tam, V. W. Y., Sommre, M. and Evangelista, A.C.J. A review of recycled aggregate in concrete applications (2000–2017), Constr. Build. Mater, Vol. 172, pp. 272-292, 2018.

Alexandridou C., Angelopoulos, G. N. and Coutelieris, F. A. Mechanical and durability performance of concrete produced with recycled aggregates from Greek construction and demolition waste plants, J. Clean Prod, Vol. 176, pp. 745-757, 2018.

Gjorv, O.E., Sakai, K. Concrete Technology for a Sustainable Development in the 21st Century, CRC Press, 1999.

Sun, Y.D., Xiao, J.Z. Aggregate of Recycled Concrete, Concrete, Vol. 6, pp. 33-36, 2004.

Bru, K., Touz_e, S., Bourgeois, F., Lippiatt, N., and Y. M_enard, Y. Assessment of a microwave-assisted recycling process for the recovery of high-quality aggregates from concrete waste. Int. J. Mineral Process, Vol. 126, pp. 90-98, 2014.

Katz, A. Treatments for the improvement of recycled aggregate, J. Mater. Civ. Eng. Vol. 16, Issue 6, pp. 597-603. 2004.

Tam, V. W. Y., Tam, C. M., Le, K. N. Removal of cement mortar remains from recycled aggregate using pre-soaking approaches. Resour. Conserv. Recycl, Vol. 50, Issue 1, pp.82-101, 2007.

Shi-Cong, K., Bao-jian, Z. and Chi-Sun, P. Use of a CO2 curing step to improve the properties of concrete prepared, with recycled aggregates, Cem. Concr. Compos. Vol. 45, pp. 22–28, 2014.

Zhang, J. K., Shi, C. J., Li, Y. K., Pan, X. Y., Poon, C.S. and Xie, Z.B. Influence of carbonated recycled concrete aggregate on properties of cement mortar, Construct. Build. Mater., Vol. 98, pp.1-7, 2015.

Zhang, J. K., Shi, C. J., Li, Y. K., Pan, X. Y., Poon, C. S. and Xie, Z.B. Performance enhancement of recycled concrete aggregates through carbonation, J. Mater.Civil. Eng., Vol. 27, Issue 11, pp. 1-7, 2015.

Xuan, D., Zhan, B. and Poon, C. S. Assessment of mechanical properties of concrete incorporating carbonated recycled concrete aggregates, Cem. Concr. Compos., Vol.65, pp. 67-74, 2016.

Shi, C. J., Cao, Z. J. and Xie, Z. B. Research progress in the mechanical properties of recycled aggregates concrete, Mater. Rev. A. Vol. 30, Issue 12, pp. 96-103, 2016.

Shi, C. J., Li, Y. K., Zhang, J. K., Li, W. G., Chong, L. L. and Xie, Z. B. Performance enhancement of recycled concrete aggregate -A review, J. Clean. Prod. Vol. 112, pp.466-472. 2016.

Bui, N. K., Satomi, T. and Takahashi, H. Mechanical properties of concrete containing 100% treated coarse recycled concrete aggregate, Constr. Build. Mater., Vol. 163, pp. 496-507, 2018.

Ismail, S. and Ramli, M. Mechanical strength and drying shrinkage properties of concrete containing treated coarse recycled concrete aggregates, Constr. Build. Mater., Vol. 68, pp. 726–739, 2014.

Neville, A. M. and Brooks, J. J. Concrete technology. 2nd ed., Pearson, United Kingdom, 2010.

Silva, R. V., Neves, R., de. Brito, J. and Dhir, R.K. Carbonation behaviour of RA concrete, Cem. Concr. Compos., Vol. 62, pp.22–32, 2015.

Li, L. G., Lin, C. J., Chen, G. M., Kwan, A. K. H. and Jiang, T. Effects of packing on compressive behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete, Constr. Build. Mater., Vol. 157, pp.757-777, 2017.

Geng, J. and Sun, J. Characteristics of the carbonation resistance of recycled fine aggregate concrete, Constr. Build. Mater, Vol. 49, pp. 814–820, 2013.

Dimitriou, G., Savva, P. and Petrou, M. F. Enhancing mechanical and durability properties of recycled aggregates concrete, Constr. Build. Mater., Vol. 158, pp. 228–235, 2018.

Tahar, Z., Ngo, T., Kadri, E.H., Bouvet, A., Debieb, F. and Aggoun, S. Effect of cement and admixture on the utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete, Constr. Build. Mater., Vol. 149, pp. 91–102, 2017.

Thomas, C., Setién, J., Polanco, J. A., Cimentada, A. I. and Medina, C. Influence of curing conditions on recycled aggregates concrete, Constr. Build. Mater., Vol. 72, pp. 618–625, 2018.

Montero, J. and Laserna, S. Influence of effective mixing water in recycled concrete, Constr. Build. Mater. Vol. 132, pp.343-352, 2017.

Pedro, D., de Brito, J. and Evangelista, L. Structural concrete with simultaneous incorporation of fine and coarse recycled concrete aggregates: Mechanical, durability and long-term properties, Constr. Build. Mater., Vol. 154, pp. 294-309, 2017.

Bui, N. K., Satomi, T. and Takahashi, H. Improvement of mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete basing on a new combination method between recycled aggregate and natural aggregate, Constr. Build. Mater. Vol. 148, pp.376-385, 2017.

Knaack, A.M. and Kurama, Y.C. Design of concrete mixtures with recycled concrete aggregates, ACI Mater J, Vol. 110, Issue 5, pp.483–93, 2013.

Knaack, A.M. and Kurama, Y.C. Creep and shrinkage of normal-strength concrete with recycled concrete aggregates, ACI Mater J, Vol. 112, Issue 3, pp.451–462, 2015.

Gholampour, A. and Ozbakkaloglu, T. Time-dependent and long-term mechanical properties of concretes incorporating different grades of coarse recycled concrete aggregates, Eng. Struct., Vol.157, pp. 224–234, 2018.

Vinay Kumar, B. M., Ananthan, H. and Balaji, K. V. A. Experimental studies on utilization of recycled coarse and fine aggregates in high performance concrete mixes, Alexandria Eng. J. Vol. 57, Issue 3, pp. 1749-1759, 2017.

Okamura, H. and Ouchi M. Self-compacting concrete, J. Adv. Concrete Technol., Vol. 1, pp. 5–15, 2003.

Singh, N. and Singh, S.P. Carbonation and electrical resistance of self compacting concrete made with recycled concrete aggregates and metakaolin, Constr. Build. Mater., Vol.121, pp. 400–409, 2016.

Kapoor, K. Singh, S.P. and Singh, B. Durability of self-compacting concrete made with Recycled Concrete Aggregates and mineral admixtures, Constr. Build. Mater, Vol. 128, pp. 67–76, 2016.

Aslani, F., Ma, G., Wan, D. L. Y. and Muselin, G. Development of high-performance self-compacting concrete using waste recycled concrete aggregates and rubber granules, J. Clean Prod., Vol. 182, pp. 553-566, 2018.

Schubert, S. Hoffmann, C. Leemann, A., Moser, K. and Motavalli, M. RA concrete: Experimental shear resistance of slabs without shear reinforcement, Eng. Struct, Vol. 41, pp.490–497, 2012.

Ignjatovic´, I.S., Marinkovic´, S.B. and Tošic, N. Shear behaviour of recycled aggregates concrete beams with and without shear reinforcement, Eng. Struct., Vol. 141, pp. 386–401, 2017.

ACI Committee 318, Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 318- 11) and commentary. American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. 2011.

EN 1992-1-1, Eurocode 2: design of concrete structures – Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings. CEN, Brussels, 2004.

New Zealand Standard NZS 3101, Concrete structures standard part 2 – Commentary on the design of concrete structures, NZS 2006, Wellington: Standards New Zealand, 2006.

CAN/CSA A23.3-04, Design of concrete structures. Canadian Standards Association, Mississauga, Canada, 2004.

Katkhuda, H.and Shatarat, N. Shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams using treated recycled concrete aggregate. Constr. Build. Mater, Vol. 125, pp:63-71, 2016.

Rahal, K. N. and Alrefaei, Y. T. Shear strength of longitudinally reinforced recycled aggregates concrete Beams, Eng. Struct., Vol.145, pp. 273–282, 2017.

Tošic´, N., Marinkovic´, S. and Ignjatovic, I. A database on flexural and shear strength of reinforced recycled aggregates concrete beams and comparison to Eurocode 2 predictions, Constr. Build. Mater., Vol. 127, pp. 932–944, 2017.

Brandes, M. R. and Kurama, Y. C. Behavior of shear-critical prestressed concrete beams with recycled concrete aggregates under ultimate loads, Eng. Struct., Vol. 165, pp. 237-246, 2018.

Seara-Paz, S., González-Fonteboab, B., Martínez-Abellab, F. and Eiras-Lópezb, J. Flexural performance of reinforced concrete beams made with recycled concrete coarse aggregate, Eng. Struct., Vol. 156, pp. 32–45, 2018.

González-Taboada, I., González-Fonteboa, B., Martínez-Abella, F. and Pérez-Ordóñez, J.L. Prediction of the mechanical properties of structural recycled concrete using multivariable regression and genetic programming. Constr. Build. Mater., Vol. 106, pp. 480–499, 2016.

Xu, J. J., Chen, Z., Ozbakkaloglu, T., Zhao, Z. and Demartino, C. A critical assessment of the compressive behavior of reinforced recycled aggregates concrete columns, Eng. Struct., Vol. 161, pp. 161–175, 2018.

Chinese Standard GB 50010-2010, Code for design of concrete structures, China Planning Press, Beijing, 2010.

Wang X., Liu, B. and Zhang, C. Cyclic torsion performance of recycled aggregates concrete beams with or without fly ash, Constr. Build. Mater., Vol. 132, pp. 529–542, 2017.

Wang X., Liu, B. and Zhang, C. Seismic behavior of recycled aggregates concrete beams under cyclic Torsion, Constr. Build. Mater., Vol. 129, pp. 193–203, 2016.

PMR Analysis, Global Market Study on Construction Aggregate, New York, USA, 2016.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize