Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Fracture Energy of Fibrous-Foamed Concrete Using V-Notched Beam Specimens

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Foamed concrete has been widely used as an alternative material to ordinary concrete due to its advantages of low density and thermal conductivity. Moreover, this type of concrete has recently been used for structural applications. Many researchers have studied the properties of foamed concrete, including its flexural strength, compressive strength and Poisson’s ratio. However, studies on fracture energy are limited. In general, fracture energy of foamed concrete is influenced by several factors that are clearly not related to the strength of concrete itself. Therefore, further studies should be conducted on the fracture energy of foamed concrete. To enhance foamed concrete performance, various types of fibres (glass, polypropylene and steel) from 0% to 1.0% of the total volume of concrete were used as an additive material in this study. The density of the produced fibrous-foamed concrete was approximately 1600 kg/m3±50 kg/m3. The cube specimens were tested to determine compressive strength, and three-point bending test on notched beam specimens were conducted to obtain load–deflection profile. The fibrous-foamed concrete was categorised under a strength class of 10–17 MPa. The optimum strength is in the range of 0.4%– 0.6% fibre portions, thus indicating high fracture energy for Bazant and Committee Euro-International du Beton models. However, the fracture energy value of the Hillerborg model is increased when the portion of fibres is increased. Therefore, fracture energy increases directly with the increase of fibre portion. This relation was observed for all types of fibres.
Copyright © 2019 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Fracture Energy; Foam Concrete; Glass Fibre; Steel Fibre; Polypropylene Fibre

Full Text:



K. Ramamurthy and E. K. K. Nambiar, A classification of studies on properties of foam concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 31(6):388-396,2009.

N. Abd Rahman, Z M Jaini, N. A. Abd Rahim and S. A. Abd Razak, An experimental study on the fracture energy of foamed concrete using v-notched beams, Proc. of the Int. Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference, Springer, Singapore, pp. 97-108, 2015.

M. N. Zahari, R. I. Abdul, A. Zaidi and A. Mujahid, Foamed concrete: potential application in thermal insulation, Proceedings of Malaysian Technical Universities Conference on Engineering and Technology (MUCEET), 2009

R. Bagherzadeh, H. R. Pakravan, A. S. M. Masoud Latifi and A. A. Merati, An investigation on adding polypropylene fibers to reinforce lightweight cement composites (LWC), Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Vol. 7(4): 13-21, 2012.

M. Kozłowski, M. Kadela and A. Kukelka, Fracture Energy of Foamed Concrete Based on Three-Point Bending Test on Notched Beams, Procedia engineering, ,Vol. 108, pp. 349 - 354, 2015.

M Kozlowski, M Kadela and M Gwozdz-Lason, Numerical Fracture Analysis of Foamed Concrete Beam Using XFEM Method, Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol. 837, pp. 183-186, 2016

M. Kozlowski and M. Kadela, Combined Experimental and Numerical Study on Fracture Behaviour of Low-Density Foamed Concrete, IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 324, 012031, 2018.

Z. M. Jaini, N. Abd Rahman , R. H. M. Rum and M. M. Haurula, Fracture Energy of Foamed Concrete: Numerical Modelling Using the Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method, MATEC Web of Conferences, Vol. 103, 02030,2017.

M. N. Zamri , N. Abd Rahman, Z. M. Jaini and N. S. Bahador, Effect of notch position on fracture energy for foamed concrete, IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 271, 012019, 2017.

M. N. Zamri, N. Abd Rahman, Z. M. Jaini, Z. Ahmad and S.A.A. Khairuddin, Experimental Study on Fracture Energy of Foam Concrete at Different Notch Depth, MATEC Web of Conferences , Vol. 250, 03006, 2018.

Z. Jaini, R. Rum and K. Boon, Strength and fracture energy of foamed concrete incorporating rice husk ash and polypropylene mega-mesh 55, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 248, 012005, 2017.

A. Hillerborg, The theoretical basis of a method to determine the fracture energy Gf of concrete. Mater. Struct., 18(4): 291–296, 198.

Z. P. Bazant and M. T Kazemi, Size dependence of concrete fracture energy determined by RILEM work-of-fracture method, International Journal of Fracture, Vol. 51(2): 121-138, 1991.

FIP Model Code, Design Code, Euro-International du Beton and Federation International de la Precontrainte, Telford, London, 1990.

ASTM C796/C796M-12, Standard Test Method for Foaming Agents for Use in Producing Cellular Concrete Using Preformed Foam, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012.

ASTM C94/C94M-17a, Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017.

ASTM E1820-13, Standard test method for measurement of fracture toughness. ASTM International: West Conshohocken, United States, 2014.

D. Aldridge, Introduction to foamed concrete: What, Why, and How?, in Use of foamed concrete in construction (University of Dundee: Thomas Telford, 2005, pp. 1-14.

V Bindiganavile and M Hoseini, Foam Concrete, Developments in the formulation and reinforcement of concrete, pp. 231-255, 2008.

E. T. Dawood and A. J. Hamad, High performance lightweight concrete reinforced with glass fibers. AL-Mansour Journal. Vol. 20: 73-87, 2013.

M. H. Wan Ibrahim, N. Jamaluddin, J. M. Irwan, P. J. Ramadhansyah and A. Suraya Hani, Compressive and Flexural Strength of Foamed Concrete Containing Polyolefin Fibers, Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 911:489-493, 2014.

N. S. Sahidun, M. A. Othuman, M. Yusof and M. D. Noordin, Compressive, flexural and splitting tensile strengths of lightweight foamed concrete with inclusion of steel fibre. Jurnal Teknologi, Vol. 75( no. 5): 103–109, 2015.

H. Awang and M. H. Ahmad. (2012) The effect of steel fibre inclusion on the mechanical properties and durability of lightweight foam concrete. Advanced Engineering Informatics, Vol.48, pp. 9348–9351, 2012.

S. Muralidhara, B.K.R. Prasad, B.L. Karihaloo and R.K. Singh, Size independent fracture energy in plain concrete beams using tri-linear model, Journal of Construction and Buildings Materials, Vol. 25(7): 3051-3058, 2011.

Firdaus, M., Abdul Manan, M., Annuar, A., Azamudin, M., Finite Element Study on Normal Stress Distribution to the Kerf Plane in a Finite Plate Under Mode I Loading, (2018) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 6 (4), pp. 106-111.

Zebri, O., El Minor, H., Bendarma, A., Evaluation of the Effective Distance by Stress Triaxiality on Mixed Mode Fracture I+II - Volumetric Approach, (2016) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 10 (4), pp. 225-230.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize