Assessment of Concrete Durability in Buildings: the Effects of the Quality of Cements Available in Lagos, Nigeria
(*) Corresponding author
This paper presents an investigative research that aims to find the effects of the cements available in Lagos, Nigeria on the durability of concrete within the study area. This is in an attempt to stem the rate of building failures in Lagos, Nigeria. The physical, the mechanical and the microstructural properties of the cements have been determined and compared with the standard properties as specified in relevant standards. 150mm cubes have been cast with these cements and all the sources of aggregates within the study area. Laboratory findings have discovered that all the cements investigated have fallen short of the expected strengths specified in standards but the labelled brands had values close to the strength standards but the unlabeled ones have fallen far short of the standard strength. The chemical analysis has complied with standard requirements except for their loss on ignition (LOI) values and the chemical properties have been complemented by the microstructural morphology as determined with the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) though the unlabeled brands have tendencies for alkali silica reactivity due to higher levels of alkali present in them. In assessing their performance in concrete, the concrete cube strength has met the expected 20MPa except for the unlabeled brands that have fallen a little short of it. The effects of these cements have been discovered to be very significant on the concrete durability within the study area. It is thereby recommended that the Nigerian regulatory agencies on cements make more efforts in order to ensure that cement manufacturers in Nigeria improve the quality of their cement brands in order to standard strength specification. All cements should be temporarily used as a 32.5 strength class, despising the labelled 42.5, pending when the manufacturers would fully comply their products to standard.
Copyright © 2019 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.
Ede, A. N. (2010). Building Collapse in Nigeria: The Trend of Casualties in the Last Decade (2000 -2010). International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering (IJCEE-IJENS). 10(6), 32-41.
National Institute of Building Sciences Building Seismic Safety Council, (2010). Earthquake-Resistant Design Concepts, an Introduction to the NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and other Structures. Federal Emergency Management Authority (FEMA) P-74 of the U. S. Department of Homeland Security.
Joshua, O., Olusola, K.O., Ayegba, C. and Yusuf, A. I. (2013). Assessment of the Quality of Steel Reinforcement Bars Available in Nigerian Market. Conference Proceedings of the Architectural Engineering Institute (AEI) of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Theme: Building Solutions for Architectural Engineering. Pennsylvania, USA. 295 – 304.
Joshua, O., Olusola, K. O., Oyeyemi, K. D., Ogunde, A. O., Amusan, L. M., Nduka, D. O., &Abuka-Joshua, J. (2018). Data of the properties of rebar steel brands in Lagos, Nigerian market used in reinforced concrete applications. Data in brief, 17, 1428-1431.
Joshua, O., Amusan, L. M., Olusola, K. O., Ogunde, A., Ede, A. N., & Tunji-Olayeni, P. F. (2017). Assessment of the Utilization of Different Strength Classes of Cement in Building Constructions in Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), 8(9), 1221-1233.
Olusola, K. O and Joshua, O. (2012). Effects of Nitric Acid Concentration on the Compressive Strength of Laterised Concrete. Civil and Environmental Research. 2(10), 48-57.
Oke, A. and Abiola-Falemu, J. (2009). Relationship between Building Collapse and Poor Quality of Materials and Workmanship in Nigeria. Proceedings of the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) COBRA Research Conference, University of Cape Town, 10-11th September 2009. 873-884.
Ogunsemi, D. R. (2002). Cost control and quality standard of building projects in Ogunsemi, D. R. (Ed.). Building Collapse: Causes, prevention and remedies. The Nigerian Institute of Building, Ondo State. 88-94.
BS EN 12620:2002 +A1 (2008). Aggregates for Concrete. British Standard Institute. London.
BS EN 196-1 (2005). Methods of Testing Cement. Determination of Strength. British. Standard Institute. London.
BS EN 197-1 (2011). Cement Part 1: Composition, Specifications and Conformity Criteria for Common Cements. British Standard Institute. London.
ASTM C150/C150M-18, Standard Specification for Portland Cement, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org
BS EN 196-3 (2016). Methods of Testing Cement. Determination of Setting Times and Soundness. British Standard Institute. London.
BS EN 206:2013+A1 (2016). Cement-Specification, Performance, Production and Conformity. British Standard Institute, London.
BS 8500-1:2015+A1 (2016). Method of Specifying and Guidance for the Specifier. British Standard Institute. London.
8500-2:2015+A1 (2016). Specification for Constituent Materials and Concrete. British Standard Institute. London.
NIS 444-1 (2003). Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements. Nigeria Industrial Standard (NIS) in the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON).
Newman, J. and Choo, B. S. (2003). Advanced Concrete Technology Constituent Materials. Butterworth-Heinemann. An imprint of Elsevier, Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP. USA.
Neville, A. M. and Brook, J. J. (2010). Concrete Technology. 2nd ed. Pearson Education Limited. Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England.
Winter, N. B. (2012). Scanning Electron Microscopy of Cement and Concrete. WHD, Microanalysis Consultants, Woodbridge, Suffolk. U.S.A.
Harapin, A., Ostojic Skomrlj, N., Cubela, D., A Case Study on Construction Technology for the Reinforced Concrete Dome of the Višnjik Sports Hall, Zadar, Croatia, (2018) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 9 (4), pp. 131-140.
Benjabrou, M., Zeggwagh, G., Gueraoui, K., Sammouda, M., Bendada, A., Comparative Study of the Behavior of Metallic and Reinforced Concrete Structures Under the Effect of Tsunami Waves, (2018) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 9 (6), pp. 248-255.
Sapountzakis, E., An Improved Model for the Analysis of Plates Stiffened by Parallel Beams Including Creep and Shrinkage Effects: Application to Concrete or to Composite Steel-Concrete Structures, (2018) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 6 (2), pp. 57-70.
Benjabrou, M., Zeggwagh, G., Gueraoui, K., Sammouda, M., Driouich, M., Evaluation of Seismic Vulnerability of Existing Reinforced Concrete Structure by Non-Iterative Spectral Method Using Pushover Analysis with Interpretation of Fragility Curves by RISK UE, (2017) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 8 (4), pp. 177-186.
Maryoto, A., Ay Lie, H., Gunawan Wariyatno, N., The Live Load Capacity of Rectangular Precast Reinforced Concrete Stick Plates, (2018) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 9 (5), pp. 174-180.
Please send any question about this web site to firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize