Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Comparative Analysis of the Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity in Testing Concrete with Multi-Variation Equation

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



The aim of this research is the study of using Non–destructive tests to evaluate the serviceability and the safety of structures. Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests are very common in evaluating the concrete strength. In this research, 150 concrete cubes were prepared with different mixture proportions, their strengths varied between 3MPa–65MPa. Rebound number and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests were carried out prior to the crushing strength of specimens. An equation has derived (multi-variation equation) correlate compressive strength of concrete to both a rebound number and ultrasonic pulse velocity values. The adopted equation was applied to estimate the compressive strength of cores which were extracted from the components of previously built structures constructed with different types of concrete. A statistical analysis is performed for the comparison with previous published models.
Copyright © 2016 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Non-Destructive Test; Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity; Rebound Hammer; Combined Method

Full Text:



Mohammad,R."Statistical Case Study on Schmidt Hammer, Ultrasonic & Core Compression Strength Tests, Results Performed on Cores Obtained From Behbahan Cement Factory In Iran. SANO Consulting, No.11, TavanirSt., Tehran: Iran.

Hobbs, B.M. Tchoketch, K.(2007)"Non-destructive testing techniques for the forensic engineering investigation of reinforced concrete buildings". Forensic Sci. Int., April,167(2-3):167-72.

MahdiS., et,al.(2011) "Assessing the strength of reinforced concrete structures through Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Schmidt Rebound Hammer tests". Scientific Research and Essays, Vol.6(1), pp.4 January.

GalanA.,(1967), "Estimate of Concrete Strength by Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Damping Constant". ACI journal proceedings, Vol: 64, Issue:10, pp. 678-684.

Kaplan,M.F.,(1958), "Compressive Strength and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Relationships for Concrete in Columns". ACI journal, Title No.54-37, February, pp.675-688.

Muhaidden, B., Studying Some Properties of High Strength Concrete After Exposure to Elevated Temperature, (2013) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 4 (2), pp. 71-77.

Qasrawi,H.Y.,(2000),"Concrete Strength By Combined Nondestructive Methods Simply & Reliably Predicted, Cement &Concrete Research, 30(5):739-746.

Malhotra, V.M. and Carino, N.J., (2004), "Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of concrete". CRC, 2nd Edit., NewYork: Taylor and Francis, Ch.1,8,and9.

Raouf,Z, "Assessment of Combined Nondestructive Methods for Testing Concrete" J. of Building Research, Vol.5,No.1, 1986. pp.133-151.

Wu,T.T, and Lin T.F.,(1998), "The Stress Effect on the Ultrasonic Velocity Variations of Concrete under Repeated Loading". ACI Material Journal, Title No.95- M49, pp.519-524.

Jaafar,M.S., Thanoon, W.A. and TrikhaDN, "Strength Estimation of Concrete in Different Environment Using V". Pertanika J.Sci.andTech.10(2),2002,pp.179-186.

Phoon, K.K, Wae, TH, and Loi, C.S., "Development of statistical Quality Assurance Criterion for Concrete Using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method" ACI Material J., Title No.96-M70, 1999, pp. 568-573.

Leshchinsky A.M.,(1992), “Non-destructive testing of concrete strength: statistical control”, Materials and Structures, Vol.25, Issue 2, . March,PP70-78.

Bungey,J.H. and Millard,S.G.,( 1996), "Testing of Concrete in structures", 3rd Edition, Blackie Academic & professional. London, pp.1-138.

Breysse, D., "Quality of NDT Measurement and accuracy of Physical Properties", Concrete NDTCE'09, Nantes, 30 June-3 July, 2009.

ACI Committee, (1998), " Non-destructive Test Methods for Evaluation of Concrete in Structures", ACI228.2R-98, American Concrete Instate.

ASTM C805–97 "Standard Test Methods for Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete", Annual Book of ASTM Standard, Vol.04. 02.

ASTMC597–97 "Standard Test Methods for Pulse Velocity through Concrete", Annual Book of ASTM Standard, Vol.04.02.

Denys B.(2012) "Non-Destructive Assessment of Concrete Structures: Reliability & Limited of Single & Combined Techniques". Stats-of-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee207-INR.

Youkhanna Z. D.,(2014), "Strength Estimation of Concrete Produced In Kurdistan Region Using Non- Destructive Tests (Combined Method)". M.Sc. thesis, Civil Engineering Department, University of Salahaddin- Iraq.

SHETTY, M.S. (2014), “Concrete Technology Theory &Practice", S, Chand Technical, Revised Edition, New Delhi.

ACI Committee,(2003), "Guide for Obtaining Cores and Interpreting Compressive Strength Results", ACI214.4R-03,American Concrete Instate.

ASTMC42/C42M –99 "Standard Test Methods For Obtaining & Testing Drilled Cores & Sawed Beam of Concrete", Annual Book Of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. si-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:IT;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'> Atifi, A., Mounir, H., El Marjani, A., A 2D Finite Element Model for the Analysis of a PEM Fuel Cell Heat and Stress Distribution, (2015) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 8 (6), pp. 632-639.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize