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Effect of Climate Change on Groundwater Quality for Irrigation Purpose in a Limestone Enriched Area

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A study was carried out at Panchbibiupazila in Joypurhat district, Bangladesh, where underground geology is limestone enriched, to investigate the effect of climate change on groundwater quality for irrigation purpose using numerical simulation model. The numerical simulation model included dispersion/diffusion, advection, ion exchange, formation of complexes in the aqueous phase, and the dissociation of water. Fifteen groundwater samples were collected from the study area to evaluate the quality parameters used for the purpose are pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR) and total hardness (TH). Only two samples were in dangerous category in terms of magnesium adsorption ratio. Rest of the parameters showed that groundwater is suitable for irrigation purpose. In the numerical simulation model the mass action, transport, and site action equations are expressed in a differential/algebraic form and solved by finite element method (FEM). Results revealed that the dissolution of limestone was directly proportional to the acidification of rainwater i.e. inversely proportional to the pH of rainwater. Dissolution of limestone was also proportional to the increase of intensity of rain that leads to the increase of velocity of water and vice versa. Dissolution of limestone was directly proportional to the increase of temperature as well. Among the factors that were included in the study, pH of water in contact had the maximum effect on the dissolution of limestone. The enhanced dissolution of calcium ions may be expected to block the filter of the pumping well and deteriorate the quality of groundwater as well. Water also becomes hard for increasing the dissolution of calcium ions will limit the suitability of the water for irrigation.
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Climate Change; Groundwater; Irrigation; Dissolution; Limestone; pH; Rainfall; Temperature and Chemical Reaction

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