Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Design of a Compact Reconfigurable Sierpinski Gasket Fractal Antenna for 5G and Satellite Communications

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Reconfigurability is one of the key features of 5G/6G radiofrequency systems. The possibility to adapt the working frequency depending on the application or the status of the nodes is important, especially in Smart Radio Environments. In this regard, the design of antennas operating at different frequency bands is challenging since strict requirements on the footprints and the radiation properties are introduced. Among other geometries, fractals present unique features in terms of small electrical lengths: they have been used for years by researchers to shrink antenna dimensions in a very effective way. An interesting perspective of these antennas is the possibility to switch the working frequency among several bands connecting/disconnecting the fractal cells. The aim of this paper is the design and the optimization of an electrically reconfigurable Sierpinski gasket fractal antenna. Four different states are obtained: in the first the device works at 27 GHz (mmWave), in the second at 16 GHz, in the third at 11 GHz (Ku-band), and in the fourth at 3.5 GHz (Sub-6GHz). The antenna operates efficiently in all the bands of interest.
Copyright © 2022 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Sierpinski Gasket Antenna; Reconfigurable Antennas; 5G Communication; Compact; Satellite Communication; Smart Radio Environment

Full Text:



W. Hong, K. H. Baek, and S. Ko, Millimeter-Wave 5G Antennas for Smartphones: Overview and Experimental Demonstration, IEEE Trans Antennas Propag, vol. 65, no. 12, 2017.

T. Padmapriya and S. v. Manikanthan, Designing of Single Band Four Antenna Array for 5G Mobile Applications using MISO Technique, International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, vol. 15, no. 20, 2021.

I. Marasco, G. Niro, F. Rizzi, M. de Vittorio, A. D'Orazio, and M. Grande, Design of a PEN-Based flexible PIFA antenna operating in the sub-6GHz Band for 5G applications, in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, 2020, vol. 2020-July.

I. Marasco et al., A compact evolved antenna for 5G communications, Sci Rep, vol. 12, no. 1, Dec. 2022.

Lovascio, A., Centonze, V., D'Orazio, A., Grande, M., Graphene-Controlled Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Using Shorting Elements, (2020) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 10 (5), pp. 286-294.

M. Y. Zeain et al., Design of a wideband strip helical antenna for 5g applications, Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 9, no. 5, 2020.

M. Tighezza, S. K. A. Rahim, and M. T. Islam, Flexible wideband antenna for 5G applications, Microw Opt Technol Lett, vol. 60, no. 1, 2018.

Y. I. A. Al-Yasir, A. S. Abdullah, N. O. Parchin, R. A. Abd-Alhameed, and J. M. Noras, A new polarization-reconfigurable antenna for 5G applications, Electronics (Switzerland), vol. 7, no. 11, 2018.

H. F. Abutarboush and A. Shamim, A Reconfigurable Inkjet-Printed Antenna on Paper Substrate for Wireless Applications, IEEE Antennas Wirel Propag Lett, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1648-1651, Sep. 2018.

M. Ikram, E. al Abbas, N. Nguyen-Trong, K. H. Sayidmarie, and A. Abbosh, Integrated Frequency-Reconfigurable Slot Antenna and Connected Slot Antenna Array for 4G and 5G Mobile Handsets, IEEE Trans Antennas Propag, vol. 67, no. 12, 2019.

Ojaroudi Parchin, N.; Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, H.; Al-Yasir, Y.I.A.; M. Abdulkhaleq, A.; A. Abd-Alhameed, R. Reconfigurable Antennas: Switching Techniques-A Survey. Electronics 2020, 9, 336.

Sanchez-Olivares, P.; Masa-Campos, J. L. Mechanically reconfigurable conformal array antenna fed by radial waveguide divider with tuning screws. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2017, 65, 4886-4890.

Panagamuwa, C.J.; Chauraya, A.; Vardaxoglou, J.C. Frequency and beam reconfigurable antenna using photoconductive switches. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 2006, 54, 449-454.

Cai, Y. Mars exploration: Wideband frequency reconfigurable electrically small multi-turn loop antenna using MEMS switch. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting, Atlanta, GA, USA, 7-12 July 2019

A. S. Oluwole and V. M. Srivastava, Features and futures of smart antennas for wireless communications: A technical review, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, vol. 11, no. 4. 2018. doi: 10.25103/jestr.114.02.

S. Yang, C. Zhang, H. Pan, A. Fathy, and V. Nair, Frequency-reconfigurable antennas for multiradio wireless platforms, IEEE Microw Mag, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 66-83, Feb. 2009.

A. A. Barakabitze, A. Ahmad, R. Mijumbi, and A. Hines, 5G network slicing using SDN and NFV: A survey of taxonomy, architectures and future challenges, Computer Networks, vol. 167, 2020.

M. di Renzo et al., Smart Radio Environments Empowered by Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces: How It Works, State of Research, and the Road Ahead, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 38, no. 11, 2020.

A. Vrdoljak and K. Miletić, Principles of fractal geometry and applications in architecture and civil engineering, e-Zbornik: electronic collection of papers of the faculty of civil engineering, vol. 9, no. 17, 2019.

C. Sparrow and B. Mandelbrot, The Fractal Geometry of Nature., J R Stat Soc Ser A, vol. 147, no. 4, 1984.

D. Dhar, Fractals, Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 6, no. 4, 1984.

F. Dokrom, Y. Shao-Wen, J. Essiben Dikoundou, A. Houwe, Kolyang, Inc Mustafa, A review of the miniaturization of microstrip patch antenna based on fractal shape, Fractals, 30 (5), 2022.

J. P. Gianvittorio and Y. Rahmat-Samii, Fractal antennas: A novel antenna miniaturization technique, and applications, IEEE Antennas Propag Mag, vol. 44, no. 1, 2002.

D. H. Werner and S. Ganguly, An overview of fractal antenna engineering research, IEEE Antennas Propag Mag, vol. 45, no. 1, 2003.

A. Karmakar, Fractal antennas and arrays: A review and recent developments, International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, vol. 13, no. 2. 2021.

J. Anguera et al., Fractal antennas: An historical perspective, Fractal and Fractional, vol. 4, no. 1. 2020.

F. Dokrom, Y. Shao-Wen, J. Essiben Dikoundou, A. Houwe, Kolyang, Inc Mustafa, Miniaturization of dual bands fractal-based microstrip patch fractal antenna for X and Ku bands applications, European Physical Journal Plus, 137 (6), 2022.

Patel, U, Upadhyaya, T, Desai, A, Pandey, R, Pandya, K. Dual-band compact split-ring resonator-shaped fractal antenna with defected ground plane for sub-6-GHz 5G and global system for mobile communication applications, International Journal of Communication Systems, 35 (7), 2022.

S. Mallavarapu, A. Lokam, Robust, Efficient and Low Profile Fractal Enabled EBG Incorporated Wearable Antenna for WLAN Standards, Defence Science Journal, 72 (3), pp. 429 - 440, 2022.

K. Medhal Bharathraj, J. Praveen Sierpinski carpet fractal monopole antenna for ultra-wideband applications, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 12 (1), pp. 983 - 996, 2022.

K. Boopathi Raja, S. Chenthur Pandian, Low-profile metamaterial-based T-shaped engraved electrically small antenna design with wideband operating capability for WLAN/5G applications, Physica B: Condensed Matter, Vol. 646, 2022.

Jegan, G., Florence Silvia, M., Vino, T. et al. Design and Analysis of DGS Based Miniaturized Compound Reconfigurable Asymmetrical Micro Strip Fractal Array Antenna for L, S and C Band Applications. Wireless Pers Commun 125, 453-466, 2022.

Mohanty, A, Behera, BR, Nasimuddin, N. Reconfigurable miniaturized UWB multiple-input-multiple-output antenna system design and study using characteristics mode analysis. Int J RF Microw Comput Aided Eng. 2022.

Harini, V., Sairam, M.V.S. & Madhu, R. Performance Analysis of an Extended Sierpinski Gasket Fractal Antenna for Millimeter-wave Femtocells Applications. Wireless Pers Commun 119, 1437-1468, 2021.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize