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Fractal Inspired Metamaterial Superstrate for Gain Enhancement

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In this paper, a fractal inspired metamaterial superstrate is proposed for the gain enhancement of microstrip patch antenna resonating at 2.4 GHz. Fractal structure is used as the metamaterial unit cell, which is designed on a FR4 substrate with a thickness of 1.6 mm. The metamaterial unit cell exhibits near-zero refractive index at 2.4 GHz. The superstrate consists of a 2×2 array of metamaterial unit cells which acts as a partial reflective surface of Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The distance between the antenna and the superstrate is optimized by the FP resonance condition. The antenna has a directional radiation pattern more than the microstrip patch antenna. The antenna gives a peak gain of 7 dBi with a gain enhancement of 4 dB and a beamwidth reduction of 23° and 2° along H plane and E plane respectively. The aperture efficiency of the antenna is 80.47%. The whole structure is simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulated and the measured results show good agreement.
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Fractal; Gain Enhancement; Metamaterial (MTM); Near-Zero Refractive Index Material; Patch Antenna; Superstrate

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