Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Dynamic Hybrid Free Space Optical/Radio Frequency Millimeter Wave and Resource Allocation in Fifth Generation Networks

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Fifth-generation networks require high data rates with ultra-reliable links. In addition, energy efficiency is a crucial factor in the devices within fifth-generation networks, due to the vast amounts of data transmitted through machine-to-machine communication. Therefore, there is a need to lower the power of links as much as possible. Free-space optics links are ideal for lowering power consumption. However, they are not reliable under poor weather conditions. Therefore, a dynamic hybrid free-space optics and millimeter-radio frequency waves is proposed in order to enhance the high data rate requirements with low latency and ultra-reliable connection while optimizing power consumption. In order to maximize the energy efficiency, a resource allocation algorithm is proposed to optimize the power transmission for free-space optics and millimeter-wave in the fronthaul and midhaul system under different weather conditions. The proposed system is evaluated, and the simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can be adopted to reduce significantly energy consumption in the fronthaul and the midhaul of multiple cells within the cellular networks.
Copyright © 2021 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Free Space Optics (FSO); Energy Efficiency Midhaul; 5G Networks

Full Text:



P. Zhu, J. Zhang and Y. Ji, Resource Allocation in Energy Efficient Hybrid FSO/mmW Fronthaul: A Differential Evolution Approach, ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Shanghai, China, 2019.

I. Alimi, A. Shahpari, V. Ribeiro, N. Kumar, P. Monteiro, and A. Teixeira, Optical wireless communication for future broadband access networks, 2016 21st European conference on networks and optical communications (NOC), pp. 124-128, Lisbon, Portugal, June 2016.

Z. Ghassemlooy, W. Popoola, and S. Rajbhandari, Optical wireless communications: system and channel modelling with MATLAB® (CRC press, 2019).

A. Kashyap and M. Shayman, Routing and traffic engineering in hybrid RF/FSO networks, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 2005, pp. 3427-3433.

M. S. Awan, L. C. Horwath, S. S. Muhammad, E. Leitgeb, F. Nadeem, and M. S. Khan, Characterization of Fog and Snow Attenuations for Free-Space Optical Propagation, J. Commun., vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 533-545, Sep. 2009.

F. Nadeem, V. Kvicera, M. Awan, E. Leitgeb, S. Muhammad, and G. Kandus, Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1687-1697, Dec. 2009.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, and C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications. 1000 20th Street, Bellingham, WA 98227-0010 USA: SPIE, 2001.

Xiaoming Zhu and J. M. Kahn, Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1293-1300, Aug. 2002.

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, BER Performance of FSO Links over Strong Atmospheric Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors, IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 44-46, Jan. 2008

Rak, Jacek, and Wojciech Molisz. Reliable routing and resource allocation scheme for hybrid RF/FSO networks. In 2014 16th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), pp. 1-4. IEEE, 2014.

Kumar, Kuldeep, and Deva K. Borah. Quantize and encode relaying through FSO and hybrid FSO/RF links. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 64, no. 6 (2014): 2361-2374.

Jamali, Vahid, Diomidis S. Michalopoulos, Murat Uysal, and Robert Schober. Mixed RF and hybrid RF/FSO relaying. In 2015 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), pp. 1-6. IEEE, 2015.

Rakia, Tamer, Fayez Gebali, Hong-Chuan Yang, and Mohamed-Slim Alouini. Cross layer analysis of P2MP hybrid FSO/RF network. Journal of Optical Communications and Networking 9, no. 3 (2017): 234-243. vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 234-243, Apr 2017.

Pham, Anh T., Phuc V. Trinh, Vuong V. Mai, Ngoc T. Dang, and Cong-Thang Truong. Hybrid free-space optics/millimeter-wave architecture for 5G cellular backhaul networks. In 2015 Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC), pp. 1-3. IEEE, 2015.

Douik, Ahmed, Hayssam Dahrouj, Tareq Y. Al-Naffouri, and Mohamed-Slim Alouini. Resilient backhaul network design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology. In 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1-7. IEEE, 2016.

Rakia, Tamer, Hong-Chuan Yang, Mohamed-Slim Alouini, and Fayez Gebali. Outage analysis of practical FSO/RF hybrid system with adaptive combining. IEEE Communications Letters 19, no. 8 (2015): 1366-1369.

Abadi, Mojtaba Mansour, Zabih Ghassemlooy, Stanislav Zvanovec, Manav R. Bhatnagar, and Yongle Wu. Hard switching in hybrid FSO/RF link: investigating data rate and link availability. In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops), pp. 463-468. IEEE, 2017.

Enayati, Saeede, Hamid Saeedi, and Nader Mokari. Throughput maximization in hybrid FSO/RF communication systems. In 2015 4th International Workshop on Optical Wireless Communications (IWOW), pp. 51-54. IEEE, 2015.

Tang, Yi, and Maïté Brandt-Pearce. Link allocation, routing, and scheduling for hybrid FSO/RF wireless mesh networks. Journal of Optical Communications and Networking 6, no. 1 (2014): 86-95.

He, Ben, and Robert Schober. Bit-interleaved coded modulation for hybrid RF/FSO systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications 57, no. 12 (2009): 3753-3763.

Sharma, Shubha, A. S. Madhukumar, and R. Swaminathan. Switching-based cooperative decode-and-forward relaying for hybrid FSO/RF networks. Journal of Optical Communications and Networking 11, no. 6 (2019): 267-281.

B. Bag, A. Das, C. Bose and A. Chandra, Improving the performance of a DF relay-aided FSO system with an additional source-relay mmWave RF backup, in IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 390-402, December 2020.

M. A. Hasabelnaby, H. A. I. Selmy and M. I. Dessouky, Optimal Resource Allocation for Cooperative Hybrid FSO/mmW 5G Fronthaul Networks, 2019 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), San Antonio, TX, USA, 2019.

M. A. Hasabelnaby, H. A. I. Selmy and M. I. Dessouky, Joint optimal transceiver placement and resource allocation schemes for redirected cooperative hybrid FSO/mmW 5G fronthaul networks, in IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, vol. 10, no.

M. A. Hasabelnaby, H. A. I. Selmy, M. Dessoky and A. Srivastava, Performance Enhancement of Relayed Hybrid FSO/mmW Fronthaul Network in C-RAN Architecture, 2018 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Bucharest, 2018.

G. D. Roumelas, H. E. Nistazakis, K. Aidinis, G. K. Varotsos and E. Leitgeb, Total Outage Probablity of a Multihop Hybrid FSO/MMW System, 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT), Ajman, United Arab Emirates, 2019.

T. Kamalakis, I. Neokosmidis, A. Tsipouras, T. Sphicopoulos, S. Pantazis and I. Andrikopoulos, Hybrid Free Space Optical / Millimeter Wave Outdoor Links for Broadband Wireless Access Networks, IEEE 18th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Athens, 2007.

Prasetya, B., Kurniawan, A., Iskandar, I., Fahmi, A., The Effect of Feedback Delay on the Performance of Closed-Loop Rotate Modulations on OFDM/OFDMA Systems, (2020) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 10 (4), pp. 230-239.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize