Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Comparison of Performance Among Forwarding Strategies in CCN: Disaster Scenarios

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Content-Centric Networking (CCN) is a novel modern architecture for the Internet in the future. This architecture concentrates on content retrieval and dissemination solution for communication models. Forwarding strategies are decision-making strategies whose aim is to define the forwarding destination, i.e., where and when request packets will be redirected. They are considered as the most crucial component in a network environment because of their contribution to determining which strategy is suitable to adopt in accordance with the environment and the applications. These strategies have not been initially designed to support complex applications and interactions that require Interest packet send rate, CCN table sizing, refreshing Pending Interest Table (PIT), and Content Store (CS), such as disaster scenarios, social network, and smart applications. The goal of this work is to evaluate the performance of CCN forwarding strategies in disaster scenarios. A network simulator (i.e., ndnSIM) is utilized to measure the performance in many scenarios by modifying Interest packet rate, PIT size, and CS size. Evaluation results achieved after performing the study on the selected strategies are considerably enhanced for the metrics cache hit, PIT size, Interest retransmissions, number of hops, delay, and Interest delivery. The main significance of this work is that it formulates a universal rule as the main function, which can adopt a suitable forwarding strategy accurately in accordance with the PIT and CS conditions and Interest packet rate, thus leading to increased Interest packet satisfaction utilization without increasing Interest packet retransmission and response delay.
Copyright © 2021 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Future Internet Architecture; Content-Centric Networking; CCN Forwarding Strategies; Disaster Scenarios; ndnSIM Simulator

Full Text:



E.-Z. Kontostavlou and A. S. Drigas, The Use of Information and Communications Technology (I.C.T.) in Gifted Students, Int. J. Recent Contrib. from Eng. Sci. IT, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 60, 2019.

W. Ejaz, M. A. Azam, S. Saadat, F. Iqbal, and A. Hanan, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles enabled IoT Platform for Disaster Management, Energies, vol. 12, no. 14, pp. 1–19, 2019.

S. Hong, M. W. Jang, and B. J. Lee, CCN Networking Architecture for Mobile Applications, in 2013 IEEE 10th Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2013, 2013, pp. 609–612.

W. Elbreiki, S. Hassan, and A. Habbal, A Scalable Name Resolution System for Information Centric Networking, J. Telecommun. Electron. Comput. Eng., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 83–88, 2016.

B. Susilo, M. R. Rotinsulu, and R. F. Sari, Performance Evaluation of Ideal Nearest Replica Routing (NRR) Against Several Forwarding Strategies on Named Data Networking(NDN), in 2018 IEEE Region 10 Symposium, Tensymp 2018, 2018, no. February, pp. 160–165.

N. E. H. Fethellah, H. Bouziane, and A. Chouarfia, New efficient caching strategy based on clustering in named data networking, Int. J. Interact. Mob. Technol., no. 12, pp. 104–119, 2019.

S. Hassan, A. Safdar, H. Bouk, and D. Kim, Content-Centric Networks: An Overview, Applications and Research Challenges, First. Daegu: SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2016.

C. Tsilopoulos, G. Xylomenos, and Y. Thomas, Reducing Forwarding State in Content-Centric Networks with Semi-Stateless Forwarding, in Proceedings Of The IEEE INFOCOM 2014, 2014, pp. 2067–2075.

S. Ahdan, H. Situmorang, and N. R. Syambas, Forwarding strategy performance in NDN network: A case study of palapa ring topology, in Proceedings - ICWT 2017: 3rd International Conference on Wireless and Telematics 2017, 2018, vol. 2017-July, pp. 20–25.

S. Sukode, I. J. Volume, S. Sukode, P. S. Gite, and H. Agrawal, Performance Evaluation of an Adaptive Forwarding Strategy in Named Data Networking, Int. J. Adv. Trends Comput. Sci. Eng., vol. 8, no. 1.4, pp. 1–7, 2019.

C. Yao, L. Fan, Z. Yan, and Y. Xiang, Long-Term Interest for Realtime Applications in the Named Data Network, in Proceedings of ACM AsiaFI12, 2012, pp. 1-8.

J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Efficient Multi-source Multicasting in Information Centric Networks, in 2015 12th Annual IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2015, 2015, pp. 245–249.

M. Hussaini, S. A. Nor, and A. Ahmad, Optimal broadcast strategy-based producer mobility support scheme for named data networking, Int. J. Interact. Mob. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 4–19, 2019.

F. Oehlmann, “Content-Centric Networking,” Netw. Archit. Serv., vol. 43, pp. 11–18, 2013.

R. Kaur, A. Singh, and S. Batra, A Short Survey on Role of Bloom Filters in Named Data Networking, in 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems, ICCS 2019, 2019, pp. 247–252.

R. Alubady, S. Hassan, and A. Habbal, The Role of Management Techniques for High-Performance Pending Interest Table: A Survey, in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2020, vol. 1073, pp. 569-582.

R. Alubady, S. Hassan, and A. Habbal, HLLR : Highest Lifetime Least Request Policy for High Performance Pending Interest Table, in 2016 IEEE Conference on Open Systems (ICOS), October 10-12, 2016, Langkawi, Malaysia HLLR:, 2016, pp. 42–47.

M. Z. Ahmed, A. H. A. Hashim, O. O. Khalifa, A. H. Alkali, N. S. Bt Midi, and F. B. A. Rahman, Evaluating mobility management models for content forwarding in named data networking environments, Int. J. Interact. Mob. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 47–60, 2019.

A. Afanasyev et al., NFD Developer’s Guide, 2014.

D. W. Sudiharto, A. Herutomo, and Y. N. Rohmah, The Comparison of Forwarding Strategies between Best Route, Multicast, and Access on Named Data Networking (NDN). Case Study: A Node Compromised by the Prefix Hijack, J. Commun., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 426–432, 2017.

A. Hannan et al., Disaster Management System Aided by Named Data Network of Things: Architecture, Design, and Analysis, Sensors, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1–20, 2018.

S. Manaseer and A. Alawneh, Emergency Centers Set-up in the Existence of Ad Hoc Networks in Disaster Recovery Areas, Int. J. Recent Contrib. from Eng. Sci. IT, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 59, 2019.

T. Gomes et al., A Survey of Strategies for Communication Networks to Protect against Large-scale Natural Disasters, in Proceedings of 2016 8th International Workshop on Resilient Networks Design and Modeling, RNDM 2016, 2016, pp. 11-22.

J. Xu, K. Ota, and M. Dong, Fast Organizing of a Content-Centric Network in a Disaster Recovery Scenario, IEEE Trans. Emerg. Top. Comput., pp. 1–10, 2017.

R. Alubady, S. Hassan, and A. Habbal, Adaptive Interest Lifetime in Named Data Networking to Support Disaster Area, J. Telecommun. Electron. Comput. Eng., vol. 10, no. 2–4, pp. 29–34, 2018.

S. Mastorakis, A. Afanasyev, I. Moiseenko, and L. Zhang, ndnSIM 2.0 : A New Version of the NDN Simulator for NS-3, University of California, Los Angeles, Tech. Rep. NDN-0028, California, Los Angeles, pp. 1–8, 2015.

E. Dogruluk, A. Costa, and J. Macedo, A Detection and Defense Approach for Content Privacy in Named Data Network, in 2019 10th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security, NTMS 2019 - Proceedings and Workshop, 2019, pp. 1-5.

R. A. Rehman, S. H. Ahmed, and B. S. Kim, OEFS: On-Demand Energy-Based Forwarding Strategy for Named Data Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 6075–6086, 2017.

D. Saxena, V. Raychoudhury, and C. Becker, Implementation and Performance Evaluation of Name- based Forwarding Schemes in V-NDN, in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2017, pp. 3–6.

S. H. Bouk, S. H. Ahmed, D. Kim, K. J. Park, Y. Eun, and J. Lloret, LAPEL: Hop Limit Based Adaptive PIT Entry Lifetime for Vehicular Named Data Networks, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 5546–5557, 2018.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize