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TCP-CLD: Cross-Layer Design for Improving TCP Performance Over Cognitive Radio Networks

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Due to the development and evolution in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs), the performance of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over CRN has become a crucial factor. TCP ensures the reliable end-to-end delivery of data, which is very important for the quality of service (QoS) requirements. TCP performance is severely affected by channel switching and channel availability in CRNs. The frequent occurrence of such events is due to CRNs nature which unnecessarily reduces the transmission rate which results in degrading the overall performance. In this paper, the authors investigate the limitations of using TCP NewReno (i.e., standard TCP) over CRNs, and further propose a cross-layer-design protocol based on an interaction between transport layer and lower layers to improve TCP performance over CRNs. The design is called Cross-Layer Design for TCP (TCP-CLD). It primarily aims at improving the TCP performance over CRNs via controlling and adapting a few selected TCP parameters. Specifically, the authors propose freezing the data transmission and re-transmission timeout (RTO) of TCP during the time of channel switching and channel unavailability. In addition, the authors update the size of congestion window (cwnd) of TCP based on the bandwidth and buffer size of relay nodes. Moreover, in the case of channel switching, the authors update the Round Trip Time (RTT) of TCP based on the new route delay. Simulation experiments have been conducted using ns-2 network simulator tool whereas results show that the proposed design achieves a significant performance improvement compared with the standard TCP NewReno protocol and the other known protocol, namely, TCP-CRAHN.
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Cognitive Radio Networks; TCP; Congestion Window; Transmission Timeout

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