Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Effect of Coding and Diversity on the Performance of Wavelet Packets Multicarrier Multicode CDMA System

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Coding and diversity are two techniques that can be used to improve communication system performance. The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of coding and diversity on the bit error rate performance of wavelet packets-multicarrier\multicode coded division multiple access system. Two different code rates have been considered, namely, R = 1/2 and R = 1/3. In addition, three types of diversity have been discussed, which are selection diversity, equal gain combining and maximum ratio combining. This study includes the effect of code rate, the number of substreams, the diversity order, the multipath intensity profile, the Nakagami parameter, and the number of uses. The study reveals that the code rate R=1/3 outperforms the code rate R=1/2. In addition, it has been noticed that the system with coding outperform the system with diversity when the channel interference is minimal, which includes less number of path, small Nakagami parameter, and a small number of users. The system with maximum ratio combining diversity in most conditions has the best performance.
Copyright © 2020 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


CDMA; Convolutional Coding; Diversity; Viterbi Decoder; Wavelet

Full Text:



J.W. Lee, Performance analysis of multicode multicarrier CDMA communication system, Masters Thesis, Dept. Elect. Eng., The Univ of Akron, Akron, OH, 2004.

M. M. Akho-Zahieh, Design and analysis of multicarrier multicode wavelet packets based CDMA communication systems with multiuser detection, Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. Elect — Eng., The Univ of Akron, Akron, OH, 2006.

M. M. Akho-Zahieh, O.C. Ugweje, Wavelet packet-based MC/MCD-CDMA communication system. Electronics Letters, Volume 42, (Issue 11), May 2006, Pages 644-645.

M. M. Akho-Zahieh, O.C. Ugweje, Diversity performance of a wavelet-packet-based multicarrier multicode CDMA communication system, IEEE Trans. Vehicular Tech., Volume 57, (Issue 2), March 2008, Pages 787-797.

M. M. Akho-Zahieh, N. Abdellatif, effect of jamming and diversity on the performance of wavelet packet based multicarrier multimode CDMA communication system, International Journal of Electronics and Comm., Volume 67, (Issue 2), February 2013, Pages 157-166.

M. M. Akho-Zahieh, N. Abdellatif, Performance analysis of wavelet packet multirate multicarrier-multicode CDMA for wireless multimedia communications, International Journal of Electronics and Comm., Volume 68, (Issue 4), April 2014, Pages 291-300.

M. M. Akho-Zahieh, N. Abdellatif, Effect of diversity and filtering on the performance of wavelet packets based multicarrier multicode CDMA system, Journal of Signal and Information Process., Volume 6, (Issue 2), May 2015, Pages 165-179.

B. Sklar, Digital Communications, Fundamentals, and Applications (2nd edition, Prentice-Hall, 2003).

A. Viterbi, Error bounds for convolutional codes and an asymptotically optimum decoding algorithm, IEEE Trans. on Information Theory, Volume 13, (Issue 2), April 1967, Pages 260–269.

D. N. Rowitch, L. B. Milstein, Convolutional coding for direct sequences multicarrier CDMA, IEEE Military Communications Conference, Proc. MILCOM 95, pp. 55-59, San Diago, CA, USA, November 1995.

Y. H. Kim, J.M. Lee, I. Song, H. S. Yun, S. C. Kim, A convolutionally coded orthogonal multicarrier DS/CDMA system in time-limited asynchronous channels, IEEE Military Communications Conference, MILCOM 99, pp. 1075-1079, Atlantic City, NJ, USA, October 1999.

D. N. Rowitch, L. B. Milstein, Convolutionally coded multicarrier DS-CDMA systems in a multipath fading Channel-Part I: Performance Analysis, IEEE Trans. on Communications, Volume 47, (Issue 10), October 1999, Pages 1570–1582.

D. N. Rowitch, L. B. Milstein, Convolutionally coded multicarrier DS-CDMA systems in a multipath fading Channel-Part II: Narrow-Band Interference Suppression, IEEE Trans. Communications, Volume 47, (Issue 11), November 1999, Pages 1729–1736.

L. Song, T. Huang, G. Du, A New convolutionally coded multicarrier DS-CDMA system, International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, pp. 393-396, Wuhan, China, September. 2005.

O. C. Ugweje, Performance analysis of convolutionally coded multicarrier DS/CDMA system in Nakagami fading, IEEE 55th Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2002, pp 1522-1526, Birmingham, AL, USA, May 2002.

O. C. Ugweje, S. Khorbotly, C. Madubata, Performance of convolutionally coded multicode spread spectrum CDMA system, IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, GLOBECOM 2003, pp 3412-3416, San Francisco, CA, USA, December 2003.

J. M. Lee, I. Song, S. Jung, J. Lee, A rate adaptive convolutional coding method for multicarrier DS/CDMA system, IEEE Military Communications Conference, MILCOM 2000, pp. 932-936, Los Angeles, CA, USA, October 2000.

M. L. Saini, V. K. Sharma, Effects of code rate and constraint length on the performance of convolutional code, International Journal of Information, Communication and Computing Technology, Volume 4, (Issue 1), January 2016, pp. 187-193.

W. Hamouda, A. Ghrayeb, Performance of convolutionally-coded MIMO systems with antenna selection, Journal of communications and networks, Volume 7, (Issue 3), September 2005, pp. 307-312.

R. C. Daniels, C. M. Caramanis, R. W. Heath, Adaptation in convolutionally coded MIMO-OFDM wireless systems through supervised learning and SNR ordering, IEEE Trans. Vehicular Tech., Volume 59, (Issue 1), January 2010, pp. 114-126.

S. Sardar, N.V.Mahesh, K. P. Kumar, Performance analysis of MIMO-OFDM downlink with soft and hard decision decoding for ½ and ¼ rate convolution encoder, IEEE International Conf. Computational Intelligence and Computing Research, Coimbatore, India, December 2014.

F. Fekri, M. Sartipi, R. M. Mersereau, R. W. Schafer, Convolutional codes using finite-field wavelets: Time-varying codes and more, IEEE TRANS. Signal Pross., Volume 53, (Issue 5), May 2005, pp. 1881-1896.

K. Kaur, Discrete wavelet transform based OFDM system using convolutional encoding, Masters Thesis, Dept. Electronics and Comm. Eng., Thapar Unv., Patiala, India, 2014.

N. Nakagami, The m-distribution, a general formula for intensity distribution of rapid fading, In Statistical Methods in Radio Wave Propagation, (W. G Hoffman, Oxford, Pergamon, 1960, pp. 3-35).

MATLAB Function Reference, version R 2012a (

J. Proakis, M. Salehi, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, fifth edition, 2008).

E. K. Al-Hussaini, A. M. Al-Bassiouni, Performance of MRC diversity systems for the detection of signals with Nakagami fading, IEEE Trans. Communications, Volume 33, (Issue 12), December 1985, pp. 1315-1319.

G. Wade, Signal Coding and Processing. (Cambridge University Press, second edition Cambridge, 1994).

R. B. Wells, Applied Coding and Information Theory for Engineers, (Prentice Hall, 1999).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize