Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Graphene-Controlled Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Using Shorting Elements

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



This paper reports the design of a patch antenna that uses of graphene-based shorting elements to implement advanced functionalities, such as multi-band and beam-steering, which make it extremely attractive for the future Fifth-Generation (5G) wireless networks. The proposed structure has 36.75×29.25 mm2 size and it has been designed on a Rogers RT/duroid 5880 substrate, 1.58 mm thick. It is composed by an external slotted rectangular patch that contains an internal circular shape. The internal shape is separated from the external one by a circular slot but it is linked to it by four copper bridges short-circuited to the underlying ground plane through a thin metal pin, one for each bridge. It has been shown that the multi-band and the beam-steering functionalities are strongly affected by the geometric location of the shorting pins. By controlling the connection of the bridges perpendicular to the antenna length, the direction of the antenna main lobe can be changed. By using the Finite Element Method (FEM), the geometric location of the shorting pins has been optimized so that the antenna resonates at 3.5 GHz frequency, exhibiting a 6.6 dBi maximum gain and a -17.55 dB S11 parameter. Moreover, by controlling electronically the connection of the shorting elements using graphene foils, three distinct beams, steering between -22 to +22 degrees, have been obtained. The beams show about 1.4 dBi theoretical antenna gain using graphene foils with 20 Ω/sq sheet resistance.
Copyright © 2020 The Authors - Published by Praise Worthy Prize under the CC BY-NC-ND license.


Beam Steering; Multi-Band Patch Antenna; Graphene; Shorting Pins; Fifth-Generation (5G)

Full Text:



Osseiran, Afif, J. F. Monserrat, P. Marsch, eds. 5G mobile and wireless communications technology. Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Cisco, Visual Networking Index, Feb. 2014, White Paper at

K. Tekkouk, J. Hirokawa, M. Ando, R. Sauleau, Continuous Beam Steering Antenna with Large 2D Coverage for 5G Applications, 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting. IEEE, 2017.

Kumar, P., Single Feed Dual Polarized Patch Antennas for Ultra-Wideband Applications, (2019) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 14 (4), pp. 284-290.

El Ayachi, M., Brachat, P., Rahmoun, M., New Electromagnetic Band Gap Structure for Planar Low Profile Antenna with Wide Bandwidth and High Gain, (2018) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 8 (5), pp. 385-389.

Bandi, S., Sudhakar, A., Padma Raju, K., A Microstrip Rectangle Carpet Shaped Fractal Antenna for UWB Applications, (2016) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 6 (2), pp. 111-115.

Mahmoud, N., Hamad, E., Compact Dual Band-Notched Characteristics UWB Antenna Using Nested G-Shaped Slots, (2016) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 6 (5), pp. 282-290.

Nataraj, D., Karunakar, G., Compact Printed Elliptical Microstrip Patch with Defected Ground Structure (DGS) for Wireless Applications, (2018) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 8 (3), pp. 271-276.

Vasanthi, M., Srigayathri, V., Design and Simulation of Tri-Band Active Automotive Antenna, (2016) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 6 (4), pp. 226-231.

Singh, V., Mishra, B., Pandey, A., Patel, A., Yadav, S., Singh, R., Triple Band CPW Fed Monopole Leaf Shaped Patch Antenna, (2017) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 7 (2), pp. 135-141.

Alja'afreh, S., Folded Strip Monopole with SRR for Triple-Band Mobile Phone Applications, (2017) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 7 (7), pp. 613-618.

M. A. Hassanien, M. Jenning, D. Plettemeir, Beam Steering System using Rotman lens for 5G Applications at 28 GHz, 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting. IEEE, 2017.

K. Klionovoski, A. Shamim, M. S. Sharawi, 5G Antenna Array with Wide-Angle Beam Steering and Dual Linear Polarizations, 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting. IEEE, 2017.

M. K. Khattak, S. Kahng, M. S. Khattak, A. Rehman, C. Lee, D. Han, A Low profile, Wideband and High Gain Beam-steering Antenna for 5G Mobile Communication, 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting. IEEE, 2017.

J. Liu, Z. Tang, Z. Wang, H. Liu, Y. Yin, Gain Enhancement of a Broadband Symmetrical Dual-Loop Antenna Using Shorting pins, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 17.8 (2018): 1369-1372.

A. C. O. Pedra, G. Bulla, P. Serafini, A. A. A. de Salles, Shorting Pins Application in Wide-Band E-Shaped Patch Antenna, 2009 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC). IEEE, 2009.

G. Zhou. (1998). Shorting-Pin Loaded Annular Ring Microstrip Antenna. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium. 1998 Digest. Antennas: Gateways to the Global Network. Held in conjunction with: USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting (Cat. No. 98CH36). Vol. 2. IEEE, 1998.

S. H. S. Esfahlani, A. Tavakoli, P. Dehkhoda, A Compact Single-Layer Dual-Band Microstrip Antenna for Satellite Applications, IEEE antennas and wireless propagation letters 10 (2011): 931-934.

A. K. Singh, M. K. Meshram, Shorted Rectangular Microstrip Antenna for Dual-band Operation, 2006 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium. IEEE, 2006.

X. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Wang, A Multi-band Square Patch Antenna Based on Shorted Pins and Asymmetric-circular Shaped Slots, 2016 Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium (PIERS). IEEE, 2016.

Nair R R, Blake P, Grigorenko A N, Novoselov K S, Booth T J, Stauber T, Peres N M R and Geim A K. (2008). Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene. Science, 320 1308.

Grande, M., Bianco, G. V., Capezzuto, P., Petruzzelli, V., Prudenzano, F., Scalora, M., D'Orazio, A. (2018). Amplitude and phase modulation in microwave ring resonators by doped CVD graphene. Nanotechnology, 29(32).

C. Shi, I. J. Luxmoore, G. R. Nash. (2009). Gate tunable graphene-integrated metasurface modulator for mid-infrared beam steering. Optics Express, vol.27, n.10, 13 May 2019,14577-14584.

Zhang Zhang, Xin Yan, Lanju Liang, Dequan Wei, Meng Wang, Yaru Wang, Jianquan Yao: The novel hybrid metal-graphene metasurfaces for broadband focusing and beam-steering in farfield at the terahertz frequencies. Carbon, Volume 132, June 2018, Pages 529-538.

B. Orazbayev, M. Beruete, and I. Khromova, Tunable beam steering enabled by graphene metamaterials, Opt. Express 24, 8848-8861 (2016).

Miao Z, Wu Q, Li X, He Q, Ding K, An Z, Zhang Y and Zhou L.: Widely tunable terahertz phase modulation with gate-controlled graphene metasurfaces, Phys. Rev. X 5 041027, 2015.

Sensale-Rodriguez B, Yan R, Kelly M M, Fang T, Tahy K, Hwang W S, Jena D, Liu L and Xing H G: Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions Nat. Commun. 3 780, 2012.

M. Grande, G. V. Bianco, M. A. Vincenti, D. de Ceglia, P. Capezzuto, M. Scalora, A. D’Orazio, G. Bruno, Optically Transparent Microwave Polarizer Based on Quasi-Metallic Graphene, Scientific reports 5 (2015): 17083.

Wu B, Tuncer H M, Naeem M, Yang B, Cole M T, Milne W I and Hao Y: Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140GHz, Sci. Rep. 4 4130, 2014.

Grande, M., Bianco, G.V., Perna, F.M.,Capriati V., Capezzuto P., Scalora M., Bruno, G., D’Orazio, A.: Reconfigurable and optically transparent microwave absorbers based on deep eutectic solvent-gated graphene, Scientific Reports, 9, art. number 5463, 2019.

Grande M, D’Orazio A, Bianco G V, Bruno G, Vincenti M A, de Ceglia D and Scalora M 2015 Optically transparent graphene-based Salisbury screen microwave absorber IEEE 15th Mediterranean Microwave Symp. (MMS).

Balci O, Polat E O, Kakenov N and Kocabas C: Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces, Nat. Commun. 6 6628, 2015.

Grande M, Bianco G V, Vincenti M A, de Ceglia D, Capezzuto P, Petruzzelli V, Scalora M, Bruno G and D’Orazio A: Optically transparent microwave screens based on engineered graphene layers Opt. Express 24 22788–95, 2016.

Grande, M., Bianco, G. V., Laneve, D., Capezzuto, P., Petruzzelli, V., Scalora, M., D'Orazio, A. (2018). Optically transparent wideband CVD graphene-based microwave antennas. Applied Physics Letters, 112(25).

Perruisseau-Carrier J.: Graphene for antenna applications: Opportunities and challenges from microwaves to THz, 2012 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conf. (LAPC) (Loughborough) pp 1–4, 2012.

Hend. A. Malhat, Saber H. Zainud-Deen, Shaymaa M.Gaber: Graphene based transmitarray for terahertz applications, Progress in electromagnetics research M, vol.36, 185-191, 2014.

A. Lovascio, M. Grande, A. D’Orazio (2019). Design of a Dual-Frequency Patch Antenna for Small Satellites. In 8th European Conference for Aeronautics and Space Sciences (EUCASS).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize