Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Review of Recent Trends on Power Amplifier Design for Modern Communication Systems

Mussa Mabrok(1*), Zahriladha Zakaria(2), Hussein Alsariera(3)

(1) Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Malaysia
(2) Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Malaysia
(3) Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Malaysia
(*) Corresponding author


DOI: https://doi.org/10.15866/irecap.v10i2.17679

Abstract


Next-generation wireless communication standard 5G requires power amplifiers capable of maintaining high efficiency in the presence of modulated signals with high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in order to avoid signal clipping and distortion. Meanwhile, a wideband or multi-band capability is necessary for multi-standard applications. In this paper, a brief review of the most recent wideband and high-efficiency power amplifier designs was presented, with a particular focus on Doherty Power Amplifier (DPA) as the most suitable technique. A comparison between different efficiency enhancement techniques was discussed in detail, while the basic concept and principle of operation for the DPA were presented accordingly. Moreover, many innovative designs to enhance the power amplifier's performance in terms of the back-off efficiency and bandwidth extension were discussed.  The first topic considered was efficiency enhancement, whereby different solutions such as multi-stage DPA, asymmetrical devices, and output combiner optimization were presented. Meanwhile, another significant topic discussed was bandwidth extension in which a large number of papers was discussed accordingly. Besides, the most important factors of DPA designs limiting the efficiency enhancement and bandwidth extension were highlighted. Most of the presented designs focused on a single approach, either efficiency enhancement or bandwidth extension. Therefore, symmetrical DPA based on the asymmetrical matching network in combination with multi-section impedance matching can be suggested to solve the problem of efficiency degradation at a Back-Off (BO) region. This will extend the bandwidth simultaneously in order to meet the requirements of modern wireless communication systems.
Copyright © 2020 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.

Keywords


Power Amplifier (PA); Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR); Doherty Power Amplifier (DPA); Efficiency Enhancement; Modern Communication Systems; 5G

Full Text:

PDF


References


M. Mabrok, Z. Zakaria, and N. Saifullah, “Design of Wide-band Power Amplifier Based on Power Combiner Technique with Low Intermodulation Distortion”, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), volume 8, (Issue 5), October 2018, pages 3504-3511.
https://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v8i5.pp3504-3511

Z. Zakaria, et al., “Development of Wideband Power Amplifier for RF/Microwave Front-end Subsystem”, Jurnal Teknologi, volume 68, (Issue 3), 2014, pages 105-112.
https://doi.org/10.11113/jt.v68.2955

Amhaimar, L., Ahyoud, S., Asselman, A., An Efficient Combined Scheme of Proposed PAPR Reduction Approach and Digital Predistortion in MIMO-OFDM Systems, (2017) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 7 (5), pp. 378-385.
https://doi.org/10.15866/irecap.v7i5.11190

J. Xia, X. Zhu, L. Zhang, J. Zhai and Y. Sun, "High-Efficiency GaN Doherty Power Amplifier for 100-MHz LTE-Advanced Application Based on Modified Load Modulation Network," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 61, (Issue 8), August 2013, pp. 2911-2921.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2013.2269052

H. Chireix, "High Power Outphasing Modulation," Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, vol. 23, no.11, pp. 1370-1392, Nov. 1935.
https://doi.org/10.1109/jrproc.1935.227299

V. Camarchia, M. Pirola, R. Quaglia, S. Jee, Y. Cho and B. Kim, "The Doherty Power Amplifier: Review of Recent Solutions and Trends," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 63, (Issue 2), February 2015, pages 559-571.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2014.2387061

W. H. Doherty, "A new high-efficiency power amplifier for modulated waves," The Bell System Technical Journal, volume 15, (Issue 3), July 1936, pages 469-475.
https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1538-7305.1936.tb03563.x

S. Chen, G. Wang, Z. Cheng and Q. Xue, "A Bandwidth Enhanced Doherty Power Amplifier with a Compact Output Combiner," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, volume 26, (Issue 6), June 2016, pages 434-436.
https://doi.org/10.1109/lmwc.2016.2558108

S. Cripps, RF power amplifiers for wireless communications, (Artech House, 2006).

Jin Shao, Rui Ma, Koon Hoo Teo, S. Shinjo and K. Yamanaka, "A fully analog two-way sequential GaN power amplifier with 40% fractional bandwidth," 2015 IEEE International Wireless Symposium (IWS 2015), pp. 1-3, Shenzhen, 2015.
https://doi.org/10.1109/ieee-iws.2015.7164561

J. Shao, R. Ma, S. Shinjo, S. Chung and K. H. Teo, "Design of broadband three-way sequential power amplifiers," 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Radio-Frequency Integration Technology (RFIT), pp. 1-3, Taipei, 2016.
https://doi.org/10.1109/rfit.2016.7578196

P. Neininger et al., "A sequential power amplifier at 3.5 GHz for 5G applications," 2017 47th European Microwave Conference (EuMC), pp. 284-287, Nuremberg, 2017.
https://doi.org/10.23919/eumc.2017.8230855

D. J. Shepphard, J. Powell and S. C. Cripps, "An Efficient Broadband Reconfigurable Power Amplifier Using Active Load Modulation," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, volume 26, (Issue 6), June 2016, pages 443-445.
https://doi.org/10.1109/lmwc.2016.2559503

R. Quaglia, J. Powell, D. Shepphard, P. Tasker and S. Cripps, "Analysis and characterization of a load modulated balanced amplifier for base-station applications," 2018 11th German Microwave Conference (GeMiC), pp. 1-4, Freiburg, 2018.
https://doi.org/10.23919/gemic.2018.8335013

W. Hallberg, M. Özen, D. Gustafsson, K. Buisman and C. Fager, "A Doherty Power Amplifier Design Method for Improved Efficiency and Linearity," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 64, (Issue 12), December 2016, pages 4491-4504.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2016.2617882

K. D. Holzer, W. Yuan and J. S. Walling, "Wideband Techniques for Outphasing Power Amplifiers," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, volume 65, (Issue 9), September 2018, pages 2715-2725.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tcsi.2018.2800041

A. Piacibello, R. Quaglia, M. Pirolaf and S. Cripps, "Design of an S-Band Chireix Outphasing Power Amplifier Based on a Systematic Bandwidth Limitation Analysis," 2018 13th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC), pp. 186-189, Madrid, 2018.
https://doi.org/10.23919/eumic.2018.8539878

P. H. Pednekar, E. Berry and T. W. Barton, "RF-Input Load Modulated Balanced Amplifier with Octave Bandwidth," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 65, (Issue 12), December 2017, pages 5181-5191.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2017.2748123

R. Quaglia and S. Cripps, "A Load Modulated Balanced Amplifier for Telecom Applications," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 66, (Issue 3), March 2018, pages 1328-1338.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2017.2766066

W. Shi, S. He and N. Gideon, "Extending high-efficiency power range of symmetrical Doherty power amplifiers by taking advantage of peaking stage," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, volume 11, (Issue 9), 2017, pages 1296-1302.
https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-map.2017.0119

C. Ma, W. Pan, and Y. Tang, “Design of Asymmetrical Doherty Power Amplifier with Reduced Memory Effects and Enhanced Back-Off Efficiency,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Volume 56, 2015, pages 195–203.
https://doi.org/10.2528/pierc15013002

W. Shi et al., "Broadband Continuous-Mode Doherty Power Amplifiers with Noninfinity Peaking Impedance," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 66, (Issue 2), February 2018, pages 1034-1046.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2017.2749224

P. Saad, R. Hou, R. Hellberg and B. Berglund, "A 1.8–3.8-GHz Power Amplifier with 40% Efficiency at 8-dB Power Back-Off," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 66, (Issue 11), November 2018, pages 4870-4882.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2018.2867426

S. Y. Zheng, Z. W. Liu, Y. M. Pan, Y. Wu, W. S. Chan and Y. Liu, "Bandpass Filtering Doherty Power Amplifier with Enhanced Efficiency and Wideband Harmonic Suppression," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, volume 63, (Issue 3), March 2016, pages 337-346.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tcsi.2016.2515419

M. Akbarpour, M. Helaoui and F. M. Ghannouchi, "Analytical Design Methodology for Generic Doherty Amplifier Architectures Using Three-Port Input/output Networks," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 63, (Issue 10), October 2015, pages 3242-3253.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2015.2471297

S. Chen and Q. Xue, "Optimized Load Modulation Network for Doherty Power Amplifier Performance Enhancement," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 60, (Issue 11), November 2012, pages 3474-3481.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2012.2215625

Yunsik Park, Juyeon Lee, S. Jee, Seokhyeon Kim and B. Kim, "Optimized Doherty power amplifier with a new offset line," 2015 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, pp. 1-4, Phoenix, AZ, 2015.
https://doi.org/10.1109/mwsym.2015.7166743

D. Y. Wu and S. Boumaiza, "A Mixed-Technology Asymmetrically Biased Extended and Reconfigurable Doherty Amplifier with Improved Power Utilization Factor," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 61, (Issue 5), May 2013, pages 1946-1956.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2013.2252188

D. Gustafsson, C. M. Andersson and C. Fager, "A novel wideband and reconfigurable high average efficiency power amplifier," 2012 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, pp.1-3, Montreal, QC, 2012.
https://doi.org/10.1109/mwsym.2012.6259573

C. Fan, X. Zhu, J. Xia and L. Zhang, "Efficiency enhanced Class-F Doherty power amplifier at 3.5GHz for LTE-Advanced application," 2013 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference Proceedings (APMC), pp. 707-709, Seoul, 2013.
https://doi.org/10.1109/apmc.2013.6694963

M. Özen, K. Andersson and C. Fager, "Symmetrical Doherty Power Amplifier with Extended Efficiency Range," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 64, (Issue 4), April 2016, pages 1273-1284.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2016.2529601

J. Pang, S. He, Z. Dai, C. Huang, J. Peng and F. You, "Design of a Post-Matching Asymmetric Doherty Power Amplifier for Broadband Applications," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, volume 26, (Issue 1), January 2016, pages 52-54.
https://doi.org/10.1109/lmwc.2015.2505651

X. Chen, W. Chen, F. M. Ghannouchi, Z. Feng and Y. Liu, "A Broadband Doherty Power Amplifier Based on Continuous-Mode Technology," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 64, (Issue 12), December 2016, pages 4505-4517.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2016.2623705

W. Kong et al., "A wideband Doherty power amplifier with shunted reactive load for efficiency enhancement", Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, volume 74, 2017, pages 151–160.
https://doi.org/10.2528/pierc17031703

T. Qi and S. He, "Design of high efficiency Doherty power amplifier applying power controlling technology with 15dB output power back-off," 2017 47th European Microwave Conference (EuMC), pp. 576-579, Nuremberg, 2017.
https://doi.org/10.23919/eumc.2017.8230913

X. Fang, H. Liu, K. M. Cheng and S. Boumaiza, "Two-Way Doherty Power Amplifier Efficiency Enhancement by Incorporating Transistors’ Nonlinear Phase Distortion," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, volume 28, (Issue 2), February 2018, pages 168-170.
https://doi.org/10.1109/lmwc.2017.2783845

J. Xia, X. Zhu, L. Zhang, J. Zhai and Y. Sun, "High-Efficiency GaN Doherty Power Amplifier for 100-MHz LTE-Advanced Application Based on Modified Load Modulation Network," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 61, (Issue 8), August 2013, pages 2911-2921.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2013.2269052

X. H. Fang and K. M. Cheng, "Extension of High-Efficiency Range of Doherty Amplifier by Using Complex Combining Load," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 62, (Issue 9), September 2014, pages 2038-2047.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2014.2333713

K. Kato et al., "A 83-W, 51% GaN HEMT Doherty power amplifier for 3.5-GHz-band LTE base stations," 2016 46th European Microwave Conference (EuMC), pp. 572-575, London, 2016.
https://doi.org/10.1109/eumc.2016.7824407

Tammy Ho and J. Gengler, "High efficiency 20 W GaN Doherty power amplifier for 1.5 GHz and 1.8 GHz microcell base station applications," 2016 Texas Symposium on Wireless and Microwave Circuits and Systems (WMCS), pp. 1-3, Waco, TX, 2016.
https://doi.org/10.1109/wmcas.2016.7577494

H. Oh et al., "Doherty Power Amplifier Based on the Fundamental Current Ratio for Asymmetric cells," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 65, (Issue 11), November 2017, pages 4190-4197.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2017.2701376

J. Zhou, W. Chen, L. Chen and Z. Feng, "3.5-0Hz High-Efficiency Broadband Asymmetric Doherty Power Amplifier for 5G Applications," 2018 International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT), pp.1-3, Chengdu, 2018.
https://doi.org/10.1109/icmmt.2018.8563718

Ahmed M. Abdulkhaleq et al., "A 70-W Asymmetrical Doherty Power Amplifier for 5G Base Stations, "9th International Conference on Broadband Communications, Networks, and Systems (Broadnets 2018), Faro, Portugal, 2018.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05195-2_44

N. Watanabe, J. Wong, A. Grebenniko and G. Nishio, "A High-Efficiency 4.35-4.85 GHz Doherty Amplifier for Base Station Applications," 2018 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC), pp. 992-994, Kyoto, Japan, 2018.
https://doi.org/10.23919/apmc.2018.8617418

Z. Cheng et al., "A Broadband Doherty Power Amplifier Design by optimizing its load Modulation Network", IEICE Electronics Express, Jan. 2019, pages 1-9.
https://doi.org/10.1587/elex.16.20181082

S. Watanabe, Y. Takayama, R. Ishikawa and K. Honjo, "A broadband Doherty power amplifier without a quarter-wave impedance inverting network," 2012 Asia Pacific Microwave Conference Proceedings, pp. 361-363 Kaohsiung, 2012.
https://doi.org/10.1109/apmc.2012.6421598

M. N. A. Abadi, H. Golestaneh, H. Sarbishaei and S. Boumaiza, "An extended bandwidth Doherty power amplifier using a novel output combiner," 2014 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS2014), pp. 1-4, Tampa, FL, 2014.
https://doi.org/10.1109/mwsym.2014.6848510

E. Bertran and M. Yahyavi, "A Wideband Doherty-Like Architecture Using a Klopfenstein Taper for Load Modulation," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, volume 25, (Issue 11), November 2015, pages760-762.
https://doi.org/10.1109/lmwc.2015.2479847

A. Barthwal, K. Rawat and S. Koul, "Bandwidth Enhancement of Three-Stage Doherty Power Amplifier Using Symmetric Devices," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 63, (Issue 8), August 2015, pages 2399-2410.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2015.2452255

N. Srirattana, A. Raghavan, D. Heo, P. E. Allen and J. Laskar, "Analysis and design of a high-efficiency multistage Doherty power amplifier for wireless communications," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 53, (Issue 3), March 2005, pages 852-860.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2004.842505

H. Golestaneh, F. A. Malekzadeh and S. Boumaiza, "An Extended-Bandwidth Three-Way Doherty Power Amplifier," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 61, (Issue 9), September 2013, pages 3318-3328.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2013.2275331

Shichang Chen, Pengfei Qiao, Gaofeng Wang, Zhiqun Cheng and Quan Xue, "A broadband three-device Doherty power amplifier based on a modified load modulation network," 2016 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS), pp.1-4, San Francisco, CA, 2016.
https://doi.org/10.1109/mwsym.2016.7540172

Y. Komatsuzaki, K. Nakatani, S. Shinjo, S. Miwa, R. Ma and K. Yamanaka, "3.0–3.6 GHz wideband, over 46% average efficiency GaN Doherty power amplifier with frequency dependency compensating circuits," 2017 IEEE Topical Conference on RF/Microwave Power Amplifiers for Radio and Wireless Applications (PAWR), pp. 22-24, Phoenix, AZ, 2017.
https://doi.org/10.1109/pawr.2017.7875563

M. S. Khan et al., "A Novel Two-Stage Broadband Doherty Power Amplifier for Wireless Applications," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, volume 28, (Issue 1), January 2018, pages 40-42.
https://doi.org/10.1109/lmwc.2017.2775157

R. W. Klopfenstein, "A Transmission Line Taper of Improved Design," Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 44, no.1, pp. 31-35, Jan. 1956.
https://doi.org/10.1109/jrproc.1956.274847

Guohua Liu, Zhiqun Cheng, Ming Zhang, Shichang Chen, and Steven Gao, “Bandwidth enhancement of three-device Doherty power amplifier based on symmetric devices,” IEICE Electronics Express, volume 15, (Issue 3), 2018, pages 1-10.
https://doi.org/10.1587/elex.15.20171222

X. Fang, H. Golestaneh and S. Boumaiza, "Broadband and Linearity Enhanced Doherty Power Amplifier using Complex-valued Load Modulation," 2018 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS, pp. 1219-1221, Philadelphia, PA, 2018.
https://doi.org/10.1109/mwsym.2018.8439130

J. J. Moreno Rubio, V. Camarchia, M. Pirola and R. Quaglia, "Design of an 87% Fractional Bandwidth Doherty Power Amplifier Supported by a Simplified Bandwidth Estimation Method," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 66, (Issue 3), March 2018, pages 1319-1327.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2017.2767586

L. Piazzon, R. Giofre, P. Colantonio, and F. Giannini, “A Method for Designing Broadband Doherty Power Amplifiers,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research, volume 145, 2014, pages 319-331.
https://doi.org/10.2528/pier14011301

K. Rawat, B. G. Gowrish, G. Ajmera, A. Basu, and S. K. Koul, “Design scheme for broadband Doherty power amplifier using broadband load combiner,” International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, volume 25, (Issue 8), 2015, pages 655–674.
https://doi.org/10.1002/mmce.20906

R. Darraji, D. Bhaskar, T. Sharma, M. Helaoui, P. Mousavi and F. M. Ghannouchi, “Generalized Theory and Design Methodology of Wideband Doherty Amplifiers Applied to the Realization of an Octave-Bandwidth Prototype," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, volume 65, (Issue 8), 2017, pages 3014-3023.
https://doi.org/10.1109/tmtt.2017.2671438


Refbacks




Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2020 Praise Worthy Prize