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Array Design for the Synthesis of Stair Step Patterns Using Firefly Optimization Technique

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In Array design, Pattern synthesis is one of the most critical problems in every application. Array antennas provide flexibility in Beam Shaping Methods. They involve generation conversion or shaping the fundamental radiation patterns. It can be noted from literature that conventional pattern synthesis techniques are not optimal. Resultant patterns deviate from the desired patterns in terms of side lobe in the trade-off region and high ripples in the trade in region. Given these facts, an attempt is made to synthesize the patterns in order to generate stair step radiation pattern. A state of the art algorithm namely firefly is used to design such patterns for different specified stair-step pattern. For generating different specified stair-step patterns, arrays of Dipoles, Waveguides, and Microstrip Patch antennas are used. It is found out from the convergence plots that the Array antennas with Dipole have minimum error value than the Arrays with Waveguide and Patch antenna. The results show that as the number of the elements in the arrays increases the error value is reduced for all three types of antennas.
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Stair Step Pattern; Firefly Algorithm; Linear Array Antenna; Convergence Plot; Dipole; Patch; Waveguide

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