Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Equal-Length Gradient Multipath Routing in WSNs

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN) are known to be limited in power, storage, and processing capabilities. Thus, there has been an interest in gradient-based routing as it provides a lightweight method depending only on local information. Alternatively, multipath routing schemes are considered for WSNs to provide reliable communication. In this paper, a routing protocol that combines multipath and gradient notions is proposed. The proposed protocol is designed to have equal-length shortest paths and to work with one or more base stations. Extensive simulation is used to characterize and to evaluate the proposed protocol considering the transmission range of nodes, required number of node-disjoint paths, and the number of data sinks and their locations. It is also shown how such parameters affect power consumption and network lifetime. Finally, results illustrate the feasibility of the proposed protocol, common patterns of network behavior, and enhancements of lifetime and power consumption.
Copyright © 2019 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Wireless Sensor Networks; Gradient Routing; Multipath Routing; Equal-Length Path

Full Text:



J. Hao, Z. Yao, K. Huang, B. Zhang and C. Li, A gradient-based multiple-path routing protocol for low duty-cycled wireless sensor networks, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 16, pp. 538-549, 2016.

M. Maimour, Interference-aware multipath routing for WSNs: Overview and performance evaluation, Applied Computing and Informatics, 2018.

C. Pu, Jamming-Resilient Multipath Routing Protocol for Flying Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 68472-68486, 2018.

M. Chiesa, G. Kindler and M. Schapira, Traffic engineering with equal-cost-multipath: An algorithmic perspective, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 2016.

A. Valera, W. K. G. Seah and S. V. Rao, Cooperative packet caching and shortest multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks, in INFOCOM 2003. Twenty-Second Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications. IEEE Societies, 2003.

P. P. Ray, A survey on Internet of Things architectures, Journal of King Saud University-Computer and Information Sciences, vol. 30, pp. 291-319, 2018.

Bani Yassein, M., Khamayseh, Y., Hmeidi, I., Al-Dubai, A., Al-Maolegi, M., A New Energy-Efficient Hybrid and Clustering Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks, (2017) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 7 (3), pp. 176-187.

K. Saha, J. Aich, S. Chakraborty and S. Bose, Probabilistic Sink Placement Strategy in Wireless Sensor Network, in Contemporary Advances in Innovative and Applicable Information Technology, Springer, 2019, pp. 169-175.

A. Boukerche and P. Sun, Connectivity and coverage based protocols for wireless sensor networks, Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 80, pp. 54-69, 2018.

N. Khelifi, E. Nataf, S. Oteafy and H. Youssef, Rescue-Sink: Dynamic sink augmentation for RPL in the Internet of Things, Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, vol. 29, p. e3278, 2018.

V. K. Akram and O. Dagdeviren, DECK: A distributed, asynchronous and exact k-connectivity detection algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks, Computer Communications, vol. 116, pp. 9-20, 2018.

Anna Devi, E., Manickam, J., A Novel Technique for Prolonging the Connectivity of Wireless Sensor Networks, (2015) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 10 (2), pp. 222-229.

Bouroumine, A., Maach, A., Zekraoui, M., El Ghanami, D., Enhanced AODV to an End-To-End Connectivity in a Smart City Based on Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks, (2018) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 8 (2), pp. 165-173.

Fabbri, C. Buratti and R. Verdone, A multi-sink multi-hop wireless sensor network over a square region: Connectivity and energy consumption issues, in GLOBECOM Workshops, 2008 IEEE, 2008.

F. Fabbri and R. Verdone, A statistical model for the connectivity of nodes in a multi-sink wireless sensor network over a bounded region, in 14th European Wireless Conference, EW 2008.

A. Jain, Betweenness centrality based connectivity aware routing algorithm for prolonging network lifetime in wireless sensor networks, Wireless Networks, vol. 22, pp. 1605-1624, 2016.

A. Jawahar, S. Radha and S. Vadivelan, Connectivity-Guaranteed Hybrid Topology Management Scheme for Improving the Operational Lifetime of 3-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks, International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 6, p. 547368, 2010.

H. M. Almasaeid and A. E. Kamal, On the minimum k-connectivity repair in wireless sensor networks," in IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC '09.

J. Pu, Z. Xiong and X. Lu, Fault-tolerant deployment with k-connectivity and partial k-connectivity in sensor networks, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 9, pp. 909-919, 2009.

L. Sitanayah, K. N. Brown and C. J. Sreenan, A fault-tolerant relay placement algorithm for ensuring k vertex-disjoint shortest paths in wireless sensor networks, Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 23, pp. 145-162, 2014.

S. H. Alnabelsi, H. M. Almasaeid and A. E. Kamal, Optimized sink mobility for energy and delay efficient data collection in FWSNs, in 2010 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), 2010.

H. M. Almasaeid, Data delivery in fragmented wireless sensor networks using mobile agents, Iowa State University, 2007.

M. Zhong and C. G. Cassandras, Distributed coverage control and data collection with mobile sensor networks, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 56, pp. 2445-2455, 2011.

B. Liu, O. Dousse, P. Nain and D. Towsley, Dynamic coverage of mobile sensor networks, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed systems, vol. 24, pp. 301-311, 2013.

D. Incebacak, B. Tavli, K. Bicakci and A. Altin-Kayhan, Optimal number of routing paths in multi-path routing to minimize energy consumption in wireless sensor networks, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2013, p. 252, 2013.

A. Hadjidj, A. Bouabdallah and Y. Challal, HDMRP: An Efficient Fault-Tolerant Multipath Routing Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012, pp. 469-482.

Alnabelsi, S., Finding an Immuned Path Against Single Primary User Activity in Cognitive Radio Networks, (2017) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 7 (7), pp. 562-571.

Sajwan, Mohit, Devashish Gosain, and Ajay K. Sharma, Hybrid energy-efficient multi-path routing for wireless sensor networks, Computers & Electrical Engineering, vol. 67, pp. 96-113, 2018.

Vasavi, Junapudi, and Siba K. Udgata, Lifetime maximisation of wireless sensor networks with multiple sinks using multiple paths and variable communication range, International Journal of Sensor Networks, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 200-211, 2018.

A. E. A. Laouid, A distributed multi-path routing algorithm to balance energy consumption in wireless sensor networks, Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 64, pp. 53-64, 2017.

H. E. A. Kim, Event-to-Sink Multipath Routing Protocol for Event Reliability in Wireless Sensor Networks, 24th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC), 2018.

T. E. A. Gao, A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation-based node-disjoint multi-path routing for wireless sensor networks, International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology , vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 118-128, 2018.

Sindhuja, P., and P. Ramamoorthy., An improved fuzzy enabled optimal multipath routing for wireless sensor network, Cluster Computing , pp. 1-9, 2017.

Xiuwen Fu, Giancarlo Fortino, Pasquale Pace, Gianluca Aloi, Wenfeng Li, Environment-fusion multipath routing protocol for wireless sensor networks, Information Fusion, vol. 53, pp. 4-19, 2020.

Onthachi, Deepa, and Suguna Jayabal, An Optimized QoS-based Multipath Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, International Journal of Intelligent Engineering and Systems , vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 49-56, 2018.

Kumar, A. Ranjith, and A. Sivagami, Security Aware Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs for Minimizing Effect of Compromising Attacks, Journal of Network and Systems Management , pp. 1-27, 2018.

Anandkumar, C. P., A. M. Prasad, and V. Suma, Multipath load balancing and secure adaptive routing protocol for service oriented WSNs, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Frontiers in Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications, Springer, Singapore 2017.

Arun, R., and V. Jeyalakshmi, Enabling Secure and Efficient Data Transmission Over Multipath Routing Signature Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks, Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1981-1988, 2017.

Liu, Xiang, Jie Huang, and Xiang Gao, A Probabilistically Weakly Secure Network Coding Scheme in Multipath Routing for WSNs, Sensors , vol. 17, no. 5, p. 1133, 2017.

A. Yahya, S. Islam, A. Akhunzada, G. Ahmed, S. Shamshirband, J. Lloret and others, Towards efficient sink mobility in underwater wireless sensor networks, Energies, vol. 11, p. 1471, 2018.

C. Tunca, S. Isik, M. Y. Donmez and C. Ersoy, Ring Routing: An Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with a Mobile Sink, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 14, pp. 1947-1960, 9 2015.

C. Tunca, S. Isik, M. Y. Donmez and C. Ersoy, Distributed Mobile Sink Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey, IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, vol. 16, pp. 877-897, 2014.

J. Zhang, S. Ci, H. Sharif and M. Alahmad, Lifetime Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks Using the Nonlinear Battery Current Effect, in 2009 IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2009.

L. Miao, K. Djouani, A. Kurien and G. Noel, Network Coding and Competitive Approach for Gradient Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks, Ad Hoc Netw., vol. 10, pp. 990-1008, 8 2012.

O. M. Al-Kofahi and A. E. Kamal, Resilient Wireless Sensor Networks: The Case of Network Coding, Springer, 2015.

H. Li, Q. Xiong, W. Shi, C. Zeng and M. Fan, Gradient Based Multipath Reliable Transmission Strategy with Fault Tolerance for Wireless Sensor Networks, International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 10, p. 267421, 2014.

Vitekar, A., Kota, P., A Survey on Evolution in Information Security, (2017) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 7 (6), pp. 502-508.

Shurman, M., Al-Jarrah, O., Esoh, S., Alnabelsi, S., An Enhanced Cross-Layer Approach Based on Fuzzy-Logic for Securing Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks from Black Hole Attacks, (2018) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 8 (2), pp. 174-185.

O. M. Al-Kofahi and A. E. Kamal, Scalable redundancy for sensors-to-sink communication, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON), vol. 21, pp. 1774-1784, 2013.

Networkx., 2016

Ghazal, N., Abdul Jaleel, Q., Using GIS and Python Language to Choose the Best School Location (Study on the Urban Areas of the Husseiniya District in Karbala Province), (2017) International Review of Physics (IREPHY), 11 (4), pp. 112-119.

Dominica, I., Suharjito, S., Noviantri, V., Utama, D., Thermal Comfort Modelling Based on House’s Architecture Using Ghost Point Quadratic Explicit Method, (2018) International Review of Civil Engineering (IRECE), 9 (4), pp. 141-147.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize