Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Experimental Validation of Receiver Sensitivity for 100-Mbps Data Rates in Seawater by Using 2.4 GHz-Low-Power Electronics

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



This paper presents an experimental validation of the receiver sensitivity for 100-Mbps microwave data communications in a typical subsea environment. It is demonstrated that underwater microwave-based pinless connector solutions can perform under conditions that have not been explored until now. Traditional “pinned” subsea wet-mate connectors require precise rotational and angular alignment to achieve efficient and reliable connections. The demonstrated flexibility offered by pinless connection shows clear operational and reliability advantages. In this study, experimental works are based on a simple loop antenna fabricated on PCB FR4 substrate under typical subsea boundary conditions. Measurement results show that high data throughputs of 100 Mbps are achieved at 2.4 GHz with a receiver sensitivity of -60 dBm, using optimized regular antennas. In addition, maximum data throughputs are attained for seawater gaps of about 40 mm.
Copyright © 2019 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Propagation Measurements; Subsea; 2.4 GHz Band; Pinless Connectors; Underwater Contactless Connectors

Full Text:



Xuanheng Li, Yi Sun, Yuanxiong Guo, Xin Fu , Miao Pan Dolphins First: Dolphin-Aware Communications in Multi-Hop Underwater Cognitive Acoustic Networks,, IEEE Trans. on wireless communication , vol. 16, no. 4, April 2017.

X. Che, I. Wells, G. Dickers, P. Kear and X. Gong, Reevaluation of RF electromagnetic communication in underwater sensor networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 143–151, 2010.

W. Au, P. Nachtigall and J. Pawloski, Acoustic Effects of the ATOC Signal (75 Hz, 195 dB) on Dolphins and Whales, J. Acoustical Soc. Amer., vol. 101, pp. 2973–77, May 1977.

Xuanheng Li, Yi Sun, Yuanxiong Guo, Xin Fu , Miao Pan A Survey of Underwater Optical Wireless Communications, IEEE communication surveys and tutorials, vol. 19, no. 1, 2017.

C. Wang, H.-Y. Yu, and Y.-J. Zhu, A long distance underwater visible light communication system with single photon avalanche diode, IEEE Photon. J., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1–11, Oct. 2016.

A. Massaccesi, P. Pirinoli Analysis of underwater EM propagation for scuba diving communication systems, IEEE European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), pp 1-5, Apr. 2016.

S. Sedra, J. Llorent, J. J. P. C. Rodriguenz, J. M. Aguiar, Underwater wireless communications in freshwater at 2.4 GHz, IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1794–1797, Sep. 2013

Sadanand Yadav, Vinay Kumar Optimal Clustering in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Acoustic, EM and FSO Communication Compliant Technique, IEEE access, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 12761 - 12776, July. 2017.

T. Ciamulski, Microwave technology for pinless connectors, Oceanology international, London, Excel, UK, 11-13 March, 2014.

M. Bokenfohr and T. Ciamulski, Underwater connector arrangement, UK Patent GB 2504018, 02 December 2014

X. Che, I. Wells, G. Dickers, P. Kear, and X. Gong: Re-evaluation of RF electromagnetic communication in underwater sensor networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, 2010, 48, (12), pp. 143-151.

D. Park, K. Kwak, W. K. Chung, and J. Kim, Development of underwater distance sensor using EM wave attenuation, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp. 5125-5130, 6-10 May 2013.

A. Palmeiro, M. Martin, I. Crowther, M. Rhodes, Underwater radio frequency communications, Oceans, Santander, Spain, June 2011, pp. 1-8.

A. I. Al-Shammaʼa, A. Shaw, and S. Saman, Propagation of electromagnetic waves at MHz frequencies through seawater, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2004, 52, (11), pp. 2843-2849.

H. Fukuda, N. Kobayashi, K. Shizuno, S. Yoshida, M. Tanomura, and Y. Hama, New concept of an electromagnetic usage for contactless communication and power transmission in the ocean, IEEE International Underwater Technology Symposium, Tokyo, Japan, March 2013, pp. 1-4.

S. Sendra, J. Lloret, J. J. P. C. Rodrigues, and J. M. Aguiar, Underwater wireless communications in freshwater at 2.4 GHz, IEEE Communications Letters, 17 (9), Sep. 2013, pp. 1794-1797.

F. Teixeira, P. Freitas, L. Pessoa, R. Campos, and M. Ricardo, Evaluation of IEEE 802.11 Underwater Networks Operating at 700 MHz, 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz, Proceedings of the International Conference on Underwater Networks and Sytems, article n. 11.

J. C. Reyes-Guerrero, M. Bokenfohr, and T. Ciamulski, On signal attenuation at microwaves frequencies underwater, Proceedings of the International Conference on Underwater Networks and Sytems, article n. 30.

J. C. Reyes-Guerrero and T. Ciamulski, Influence of temperature on signal attenuation at microwaves frequencies underwater, Oceans, 2015, Genova, pp. 1-4, 18-21 May 2015.

H. F. Guarnizo-Mendez, F. Le Pennec, C. Gac, C. Person, Deep underwater compatible Wi-Fi antenna development, 14th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC), 2011, pp.1-5, 3-7 Oct. 2011

N. W. Bergmann, J. Juergens, H. Liqun, W. Yunlong, and J. Trevathan, Wireless underwater power and data transfer, IEEE 38th Conference on Local Computer Networks Workshop (LCN Workshops), 2013, pp. 104-107, 21-24 Oct. 2013.

Dargie, W. and C. Poellabauer, Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Practice, John Wiley and Sons, 2010.

Jiang, S. and S. Georgakopoulos, Electromagnetic wave propagation into fresh water, Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 3, 261–266, 2011.

J. Luo, L. Fan, S. Wu, and X. Yan, Research on Localization Algorithms Based on Acoustic Communication for Underwater Sensor Networks, Sensors, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1–25, Jan. 2018.

Lloret, J.; Sendra, S.; Ardid, M.; Rodrigues, J. Underwater Wireless Sensor Communications in the 2.4 GHz ISM Frequency Band. Sensors 2012, 12, 4237–4264.

Sendra, S.; Lamparero, J.V.; Lloret, J.; Ardid, M. Study of the optimum frequency at 2.4 GHz ISM band for underwater wireless ad hoc communications. In Ad-hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2012; pp. 260–273.

Stojanovic, M. On the Relationship Between Capacity and Distance in an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel. In Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 25 September 2006; ACM: New York, NY, USA, 2006; pp. 41–47. Sensors 2016, 16, 890 15 of 15

Palmeiro, A.; Martin, M.; Crowther, I.; Rhodes, M. Underwater radio frequency communications. In Proceedings of the OCEANS 2011 IEEE-Spain, Santander, Spain, 6–9 June 2011; pp. 1–8.

Sadiku, M. Elements of Electromagnetics; The Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering; Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA, 2014.

Rappaport, T. Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed.; Prentice Hall PTR: Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2001.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize