Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

An Enhanced Cross-Layer Approach Based on Fuzzy-Logic for Securing Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks from Black Hole Attacks

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Black holes attack in wireless ad-hoc networks can obstruct network functions, e.g.; successful packets delivery ratio to destinations. Current conventional detection mechanisms are based on single layer information, lack of appropriate performance metrics, and/or the adequate accuracy. In this paper, a new cross-layer Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is proposed, in order to mitigate the black hole attack in wireless ad-hoc networks. The proposed work modifies ad-hoc routing protocol for black hole attacks detection through extracting information from different OSI layers, and use these information as inputs into the fuzzy logic system, in which the algorithm precisely detects existing malicious nodes. Using NS2 simulation tool, a comprehensive simulation is conducted in order to compare our proposed approach performance with a recent cross layer-based approach for black hole intrusion detection. Simulation results reveal that our proposed system has a tremendous accuracy in detecting black holes with an acceptable additional overhead. Our proposed IDS outperforms studied IDS in terms of successful packet delivery ratio (PDR).
Copyright © 2018 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Black Hole Attack; Cross-Layer; Fuzzy Logic; Intrusion Detection System; Security; Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

Full Text:



Khalid A. Darabkh, Wala’a S. Al-Rawashdeh, Raed T. Al-Zubi, and Sharhabeel H. Alnabelsi, “C-DTB-CHR: Centralized Density- and Threshold-based Cluster Head Replacement Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks,” The Journal of Supercomputing, , vol. 73, no. 12, pp. 5332-5353, 2017.

Mamoun F. Al-Mistarihi, Rami Mohaisen, Ashraf Sharaqa, Mohammad M. Shurman, and Khalid A. Darabkh, “Performance Evaluation of Multiuser Diversity in Multiuser Two-Hop Cooperative Multi-Relay Wireless Networks using MRC over Rayleigh Fading Channels,” International Journal of Communication Systems, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 71-90, January 2015.

Mohammad Shurman, Noor Awad, Mamoun F. Al-Mistarihi, and Khalid A. Darabkh, “LEACH Enhancements for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Model,” Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals & Devices, Conference on Communication & Signal Processing, Castelldefels-Barcelona, Spain, pp. 1-4, February 2014.

Khalid A. Darabkh, Wijdan Y. Albtoush, and Iyad F. Jafar, “Improved Clustering Algorithms for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Journal of Supercomputing, vol. 73, no. 5, pp 1952–1977, May 2017.

Ala F. Khalifeh, Mahmoud AlQudah, and Khalid A. Darabkh, “Optimizing the Beacon and SuperFrame Orders in IEEE 802.15.4 for Real-time Notification in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proceedings of 2017 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET 2017), Chennai, India, March 2017.

K. A. Darabkh, B. Abu-Jaradeh, and I. Jafar, “Incorporating Automatic Repeat Request and Thresholds with Variable Complexity Decoding Algorithms over Wireless Networks: Queuing Analysis,” IET Communications, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 1377–1393, July 2011.

M. Shurman, M. Al-Mistarihi, and K. Darabkh, “Merging Dynamic Address Autoconfiguration and Security Key Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proceedings of 36th IEEE International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO 2013), Opatija, Croatia, pp. 441-445, May 2013.

M. Shurman, M. Al-Mistarihi, and K. Darabkh, “Dynamic Distribution of Security Keys and IP Addresses Coalition Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Automatika Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications, In Press.

R. Al-Zubi, M. Krunz, G. Al-Sukkar, M. Hawa, and K. A. Darabkh, “Packet Recycling and Delayed ACK for Improving the Performance of TCP over MANETs,” Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 943-963, March 2014.

Khalid A. Darabkh and Ola Alsukour, “Novel Protocols for Improving the Performance of ODMRP and EODMRP over Mobile Ad hoc Networks,” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 2015, pp.1-18, October 2015.

Camp, Tracy, Jeff Boleng, and Vanessa Davies. "A survey of mobility models for ad hoc network research." Wireless communications and mobile computing 2, no. 5 (2002): 483-502.

Alnabelsi, Sharhabeel H., Hisham M. Almasaeid, and Ahmed E. Kamal. "Optimized sink mobility for energy and delay efficient data collection in FWSNs." IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), pp. 550-555, 2010.

Alnabelsi, S.H., and Kamal, A.E. "Interference-based packet recovery for energy saving in Cognitive Radio Networks." IEEE ICC, pp. 5978-5982. 2012.

Shurman, M.M.; Al-Mistarihi, M. F.; Alnabelsi, S.H.; Hani, R.R. "A Novel Network Coding Approach: Packets Conflict Based For Matrix Optimization." Journal of Theoretical & Applied Information Technology 95, no. 20 (2017).

Dokurer, Semih, “Simulation of Black hole attack in wireless Ad-hoc networks”. Master's thesis, Atılım University, Sept. 2006.

K. S. Madhusudhananaga Kumar and G. Aghila, “A Survey on Black Hole Attacks on AODV Protocol in MANET,” International Journal of Computer Applications, Oct. 2011.

Y. Hu, A Perrig, and D. Johnson, “Packet Leashes: A Defense Against Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. of IEEE INFORCOM, Nov. 2002.

F. Xing and W. Y. Wang, “Understanding Dynamic Denial of Service Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” MILCOM, Washington DC, Oct. 2006.

S. Sharma and R. Gupta, “Simulation study of black hole attack in the mobile ad-hoc networks,” Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Dec. 2009

H. Yadav, R. Kuma, “Identification and Removal of Black Hole Attack for Secure Communication in MANETS,” International Journal of Computer Science and Telecommunications, 2012.

B.Kannhavong, H.Nakayama, Y.Nemoto, N.Kato, A.Jamalipour, “A Survey Of Routing Attacks In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications, Oct. 2007.

Kanthe, A., Simunic, D., and Prasad, R., “Comparison of AODV and DSR On-Demand Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks,” 1st International Conference on Emerging Technology Trends in Electronics, Communication and Networking (ET2ECN), Dec. 2012.

Mohammad Al-Shurman, Seong-Moo Yoo, and Seungjin Park, “Black hole attack in mobile Ad Hoc networks,” in Proc. of the 42nd annual Southeast regional conference, ACM Southeast Regional Conference, Huntsville, April 2004.

Banerjee, Subhashis, Mousumi Sardar, and Koushik Majumder. “AODV Based Black-Hole Attack Mitigation in MANET,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications (FICTA) 2013. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, June 2014.

Jaisankar N, Saravanan R, Swamy KD, “A Novel Security Approach for Detecting Black Hole Attack in MANET,” the International Conference on Recent Trends in Business Administration and Information Processing, India, March 2010.

Latha Tamilselvan, V. Sankaranarayanan, “Prevention of Co-operative Black Hole Attack in MANET,” J. of Networks, 2008.

Medadian, M., Mebadi A., Shahri E., “Combat with Black Hole attack in AODV routing protocol,” IEEE 9th Malaysia International Conference on Communications (MICC), 2009.

Tamilselvan L, Sankaranarayanan V., “Prevention of Black hole Attack in MANET,” the 2nd International Conference on Wireless Broadband and Ultra Wideband Communications, Australia, August 2007.

J Alem, Y.F., Zhao Cheng Xuan , “Preventing black hole attack in mobile ad-hoc networks using Anomaly Detection,” 2nd International Conference on Future Computer and Communication (ICFCC),China , May 2010.

J Lin, Wei, Liu Xiang, Derek Pao, and Bin Liu. “Collaborative distributed intrusion detection system,” Second International Conference on Future Generation Communication and Networking, (FGCN08), China, July 2008.

Disha G. Kariya, Atul B. Kathole, Sapna R. Heda,” Detecting Black and Gray hole Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using an Adaptive Method “, international journal of emerging technology and advanced engineering, Jan. 2012.

Babu, K. Suresh, and K. Chandra Sekharaiah, “CLDASR: Cross Layer Based Detection and Authentication in Secure Routing in MANET,” International Journal of Computer Networks and Wireless Communications, April 2014.

T. Poongothai, K. Duraiswamy “Cross Layer Intrusion Detection System of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Feature Selection Approach,” WSEAS Transactions on Communications, 2014.

A. Mohammed, B.H. Sofiane and F.K. Mohamed “A Cross Layer for Detection and Ignoring Black Hole Attack in Manet” I.J. Computer Netw. & Information Security, 10, pp. 42-49, 2015.

Baiad, Raghad, Omar Alhussein, Hadi Otrok, and Sami Muhaidat. “Novel cross layer detection schemes to detect blackhole attack against QoS-OLSR protocol in VANET.” Vehicular Communications 5 (2016): 9-17.

Gopal, Usha, and Kannimuthu Subramanian. “A secure cross-layer AODV routing method to detect and isolate (SCLARDI) black hole attacks for MANET.” Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences 25, no. 4 (2017): 2761-2769.

Subba, Basant, Santosh Biswas, and Sushanta Karmakar. “Intrusion detection in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: Bayesian game formulation.” Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal 19, no. 2 (2016): 782-799.

Wahane, Gayatri, Ashok M. Kanthe, and Dina Simunic. “Technique for detection of cooperative black hole attack using true-link in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks.” In IEEE 37th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO), pp. 1428-1434, 2014.

Feizollah, Ali, Nor Badrul Anuar, Rosli Salleh, and Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab. “A review on feature selection in mobile malware detection.” Digital Investigation 13 (2015): 22-37.

Patel, Nirav J., and Rutvij H. Jhaveri. “Detecting packet dropping nodes using machine learning techniques in Mobile ad-hoc network: A survey.” In IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Engineering Systems (SPACES), pp. 468 - 472, 2015.

Kaur, Ramanpreet, and Anantdeep Kaur. "Blackhole Detection in MANETs Using Artificial Neural Networks." International Journal for Technological Research in Engineering 1, no. 9 (2014): 959-962.

Abdulkader, Zaid A., Azizol Abdullah, Mohd Taufik Abdullah, and Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain. "LI-AODV: Lifetime Improving AODV Routing for Detecting and Removing Black-Hole Attack from VANET." Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology 95, no. 1 (2017): 196.

Q. Shen, R. Jensen, “Rough sets, their extensions and applications,” International Journal of Automation and Computing, May 2007.

C. Tsai, W. Eberle, C. Chu, “Genetic algorithms in feature and instance selection,” in Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 39, 2013.

Disha G. Kariya, Atul B. Kathole, Sapna R. Heda, “Detecting Black and Gray hole Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using an Adaptive Method,” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Jan. 2012.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize