Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Bluetooth Low Energy: Comparing 4 Trilateration Models in Indoor Positioning System

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



The current GPS (Global Positioning System) is unable to work inside a building because the satellite signal is blocked by the building itself. A great amount of researches aimed to realize a tracking system that works inside a building. However, only few researches uses BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy). In a tracking system using BLE, its position strongly determines the accuracy of the position of the object. Therefore, the goal of this research was to develop a positioning system using Bluetooth generation 4 and Bluetooth Low Energy based on the distance measurement. In this research, the trilateration technique applied at 4 models position was analyzed: AOTG (All on the Ground), UBS (Upper Beacon and Smartphone), UBLS (Upper Beacon Lower Smartphone) and LBUS (Lower Beacon Upper Smartphone). The experiment provided in this paper indicated that the best result achieved from the four models is shown by AOTG models with the direct line of sight between a beacon and a smartphone, which was fulfilled. The average error generated is 0.771meter. The second best result has been given by LBUS that has an average error of 0.841 meter. The third best result has been given by UBS that has an average error of 1.061 meter and the worst one has been given by UBLS that has an average error of 1.217 meter.
Copyright © 2018 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE); Indoor Positioning System; Beacon; Trilateration Model; Received Signal Strength Indicator

Full Text:



X.-W. Chang and C. C. Paige, An Orthogonal Transformation Algorithm for GPS Positioning, (2003) SIAM J. Sci. Computing, Vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1710-1732.

K. Oguchi, S. Maruta, and D. Hanawa, Human Positioning Estimation Method Using Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) in a Wireless Sensor Network, (2014) Procedia Comput. Science, Vol. 34, pp. 126-132.

M. J. Rycroft, Understanding GPS, (2006) Principles and applications, Vol. 59, no. 5.

D.-Y. Kim, S.-H. Kim, D. Choi, and S.-H. Jin, Accurate Indoor Proximity Zone Detection Based on Time Window and Frequency with Bluetooth Low Energy, (2015) Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 56, pp. 88-95.

Al Hadidi, M., Al-Azzeh, J., Tkalich, O., Odarchenko, R., Gnatyuk, S., Khokhlachova, Y., ZigBee, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi Complex Wireless Networks Performance Increasing, (2017) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 7 (1), pp. 48-56.

C. E. Galvan. T, I. Galvan-Tejada, E. I. Sandoval, and R. Brena, Wifibluetooth based combined positioning algorithm, (2012) Procedia Engineering, Vol. 35, pp. 101-108.

GokhanKul, TanselOzyer, and BulentTavli, IEEE 802.11 WLAN Based Real Time Indoor Positioning:Literature Survey and Experimental Investigations, The 9th International Conference on Future Networks and Communications (FNC-2014), Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, 2014.

A. S. Huang and L. Rudolph, Bluetooth Essentials for Programmers (Cambridge University Press, 1 edition, September 3, 2007).

R. Heydon, Bluetooth Low Energy: The Developer's Handbook (Prentice Hall 1 edition, November 7, 2012).

X. Li, J. Wang, and C. Liu, A bluetooth/PDR integration algorithm for an indoor positioning system, (2015) Sensors (Switzerland), Vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 24862--24885.

X. Wang, O. Bischoff, R. Laur, and S. Paul., Localization in Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks using Multilateration with RSSI for Logistic Applications,(2009) Procedia Chemistry, Vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 461-464.

B. Soewito, A. Y. H. Ritonga and F. E. Gunawan, Increasing accuracy of bluetooth low energy for distance measurement applications, The 11th International Conference on Knowledge, Information and Creativity Support Systems (KICSS), Yogyakarta, 2016, pp. 1-5.

TengqingqingGe, Indoor Positioning System based on Bluetooth Low Energy for Blind or Visually Impaired Users, Master's thesis at KTH Royal Institute of Technology School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Department of Communication Systems, Stockholm, Sweden, October 2015.

ShailajaPatil, MukeshZaveri, MDS and Trilateration Based Localization in Wireless, (2011) Wireless Sensor Network, Vol. 3, pp. 198-208.

Akshay Singh, Sakshi Sharma, Shashwat Singh, Android application Development using Android Studio and PHP Framework, (2016) IJCA Proceedings on Recent Trends in Future Prospective in Engineering and Management Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 5-8.

Jingjing Yang, Zhihui Wang and Xiao Zhang, An iBeacon-based Indoor Positioning Systems for Hospitals, (2015) International Journal of Smart Home, Vol. 9, No. 7, pp. 161-168.

X. Li, D. Xu, X. Wang and R. Muhammad, Design and implementation of indoor positioning system based on iBeacon, International Conference on Audio, Language and Image Processing (ICALIP) 2016, Shanghai, pp. 126-130.

B. Soewito, I. Faahakhododo and F. E. Gunawan, Increasing the accuracy of distance measurement between access point and smartphone, The 11th International Conference on Knowledge, Information and Creativity Support Systems (KICSS), Yogyakarta, 2016, pp. 1-6.

R. Faragher and R. Harle, Analysis of the Accuracy of Bluetooth Low Energy for Indoor Positioning Applications, Proceedings of the 27th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, Tampa Convention Centre, Tampa, Florida, pp. 201-210, 2014.

OnkarPathak, Pratik Palaskar, Rajesh Palkar, MayurTawari, Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning System Based on RSSI Measurements from Wi-Fi Access Points - A Tri-lateration Approach, (2014) International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 5, Issue 4.

K. Mikhaylov, Simulation of network-level performance for Bluetooth Low Energy, IEEE 25th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communication (PIMRC), Washington, DC, pp. 1259-1263, 2014.

Müller, P., and Piche, R., Statistical Trilateration with Skew-t Errors, International Conference on Localization and GNSS (ICL-GNSS), pp. 1-6, Gothenburg, Sweden: IEEE.

Iman H. Kartowisastro, Local Positioning System of a Mobile Robot: A Practical Perspective, The 9th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, Singapore, pp. 1--6, 2006.

Allabouche, K., Mazri, T., Jorio, M., El Amrani El Idrissi, N., Comparative Analysis of Microstrip and Dielectric Resonator Antennas for UMTS Application, (2015) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 5 (1), pp. 33-38.


Nandakumar, S., Khara, S., Velmurugan, T., Preetha, K., Priority Based Call Admission Control in Integrated 3G/WLAN Mixed Cell, (2015) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 5 (2), pp. 98-105.

Jaglan, N., Dev Gupta, S., Reflection Phase Characteristics of EBG Structures and WLAN Band Notched Circular Monopole Antenna Design, (2015) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 5 (4), pp. 233-240.

Velmurugan, T., Chaurasia, S., Sharma, P., Khara, S., Efficient Vertical Handoff Algorithm for Mission-Critical Management, (2015) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 5 (3), pp. 154-161.

Berrich, L., Lahsaini, M., Zenkouar, L., Comparison of Rectangular and Circular Microstrip Antenna’s Array for a WIFI and RFID Applications at 2.45 GHZ and 5.8 GHZ, (2015) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 5 (4), pp. 212-221.

Dhaouadi, M., Mabrouk, M., Vuong, T., Ghazel, A., Magnetic Tag Antenna for UHF Near-field and Far-Field RFID Applications, (2015) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 5 (2), pp. 119-123.

Necibi, O., Hamzaoui, D., Vuong, T., Gharsallah, A., A Novel RFID Antenna with HIS Structure for Ka Band, (2015) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 5 (3), pp. 124-131.

Zahraoui, I., Errkik, A., Abdelmounim, E., Bennis, H., El Abdellaoui, L., Mediavilla Sanchez, A., A New Design of a CPW Fed Triple-Band for GPS, UMTS and WiMAX Applications, (2015) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 5 (6), pp. 337-340.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize