Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Adaptive Distance-Based Broadcasting Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Several studies investigated and stressed the benefits of broadcast communications, however, broadcasting in MANETs, still poses many challenges. Due to the lack of fixed infrastructure in MANETs, broadcasting is an important operation for nodes in the network. Even though blind flooding is a very simple type of broadcasting technique, this method is mainly ineffective and lacks efficient resource utilization. To overcome the blind flooding deficiency, several schemes have been proposed. Distance-based broadcasting techniques are based on the relative distance between the node and its neighboring nodes. In general, distance-based techniques are based on fixed thresholds, which results in inappropriate behavior in various operating conditions. In this paper, we propose a dynamic threshold distance scheme and examine its performance under several conditions. Also, we focused on the impact of dynamic distance threshold value on the performance of the distance-based technique using extensive simulation experiments which were conducted under various network conditions. The obtained results indicate that the proposed protocol outperforms both fixed distance and blind flooding methods in terms of overheads, normalized routing load, end-to-end delay, and the packet delivery ratio.
Copyright © 2018 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Broadcast; MANETs; Flooding; Distance-Based Broadcasting; Reachability

Full Text:



S. Corson and J. Maker. Mobile ad hoc Networking (MANET), Routing protocol performance issues and evaluation consideration, IETF RFC 2501; 1999.

IETF Working Group: Mobile Adhoc Networks (Manet), [Online] [accessed 2017 April]. Available from URL:"

Internet Engineering Task Force, MANET working group charter, [Online] [accessed 2017 April]. Available from URL:

J. Liu and I. Chlamtac, Mobile ad hoc networking with a view of 4G wireless: Imperatives and challenges, in Mobile Ad Hoc Networking, Wiley, 2004, pp. 1-45.

I. Chlamtac, M. Conti, and J. Liu, Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges, Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 1, 2003, pp. 13 – 64.

S. Basagni, M. Conti, S. Giordano, and I. Stojmenovic, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking, New Jersey: IEEE Press, 2004, pp. 205 - 229.

H. Lim, K. Xu, and M. Gerla. TCP performance over multipath routing in mobile ad hoc networks, Proceedings of the 38th annual IEEE International Conference on Communications ICC 2003; 2003, pp. 1046-1068.

S. Ni, Y. Tseng, Y. Chen, and J. Sheu. The broadcast storm problem in a mobile ad hoc network, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (ACM MOBICOM,99); 1999, pp. 151-162.

Y. Sasson, D. Cavin, and A. Schiper, Probabilistic broadcast for flooding in wireless mobile ad hoc networks, Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications& Networking Conference (WCNC 2003); 2003, pp.1124–1130.

B. William, T. Camp, Comparison of broadcasting techniques for mobile ad hoc networks, Proceedings of the 3rd ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MOBIHOC 2002). ACM New York, NY, USA; 2002, pp. 194–205.

Z. Haas, J. Halpern, L. Li, Gossip-based ad hoc routing, proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM, IEEE Computer Society, New York; 2002.

M. Bani Yassein, M. Ould-Khaoua, L. M. Mackenzie, and S. Papanastasiou, Improving the Performance of Probabilistic Flooding in MANETs, Proceedings of International Workshop on Wireless Ad-hoc Networks (IWWAN-2005). Waterloo campus of King's College, London, United Kingdom, 2005.

J. Wu and W. Lou. Forward-node-set-based broadcast in clustered mobile ad hoc networks, special issue on Algorithmic, Geometric, Graph, Combinatorial, and Vectors, Proceedings of the Wireless Network and Mobile Computing; 2003, pp. 155-173.

Bani Yassein, M., Hamdan, M., Shehadeh, H., Mrayan, L., A Novel Approach for Health Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Network, (2017) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 7 (4), pp. 271-281.

Q. Zhang and D. P. Agrawal. Dynamic probabilistic broadcasting in MANET,. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing 2005, pp. 220-233

C. Chen, C.-K. Hsu, and H.-K. Wang, A distance-aware counter-based broadcast scheme for wireless ad hoc networks, in Military Communications Conference (MILCOM 2005) IEEE, vol. 2, 2005, pp. 1052-1058.

T. Banoand J. Singhai. Probabilistic: A Fuzzy Logic-Based Distance Broadcasting Scheme For Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications (IJACSA), vol. 3, no. 9, 2012, pp. 124-129.

Bani Yassein, M., Al Balas, F., Odeh, A., Energy-Aware Objective Function for Routing Protocol in Internet of Things, (2017) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 7 (3), pp. 188-197.

M. Bani Yassein, S. Nimer, and A. Al-Dubai, A new dynamic counter-based broadcasting scheme for Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Journal of Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 553-563, 2011, Elsevier Journal.

M. Bani Yassein, M. Bani Khalaf and A. Al-Dubai, A performance comparison of smart probabilistic broadcasting of ad hoc distance vector (AODV), International Journal of Supercomputing Springer, vol.53, no. 1, 2010, pp. 196-211.

Bani Yassein, M., Khamayseh, Y., Hmeidi, I., Al-Dubai, A., Al-Maolegi, M., A New Energy-Efficient Hybrid and Clustering Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks, (2017) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 7 (3), pp. 176-187.

M. Khabbazian, I. F. Blake, V. K. Bhargava Local Broadcast Algorithms in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Reducing the Number of Transmissions, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, March 2012, vol. 11, no 3, pp. 402-413.

Y. Zhang, Z. Meng, and G. Zhang, Research of New Media Wireless Ad Hoc Network Broadcast Algorithm, Advanced Materials Research, vol. 962 – 965, June 2014, pp. 2886-2889.

N. Xiong, X. Huang, H. Cheng, and Z. Wan, Energy-Efficient Algorithm for Broadcasting in Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks, International Journal of Sensors, vol. 13, April 2013. pp. 4922-4946.

X. Zeng, R. Bagrodia., and M. Gerla, “GloMoSim: a library for parallel simulation of large-scale wireless networks, Parallel and Distributed Simulation, 1998. PADS 98. Proceedings. Twelfth Workshop on vol., no., 1998, pp. 154-161.

Bani Yassein, M., Abuein, Q., Bani Amer, A., Energy Saving in Constrained Application Protocol of Internet of Things, (2016) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 6 (3), pp. 160-168.

Yassein, M. B., Shatnawi, M. Q., Mardini, W., Al-zoubi, D. Internet of things' business impact and its application layer protocol in embedded systems, International Journal of Intelligent Enterprise 4(1-2), pp. 143-154.

Yassein, M. B., Ould-Khaoua, M., Papanastasiou, S.Performance evaluation of flooding in MANETs in the presence of multi-broadcast traffic (2005) Proceedings of the International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems - ICPADS, 2, pp. 505-509.

Yassein, M. B., Oqaily, O. A., Min, G., Mardini, W., Khamayseh, Y., Manaseer, S. S. Enhanced Fibonacci backoff algorithm for mobile Ad-hoc network (2010) Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, CIT-2010, 7th IEEE International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems, ICESS-2010, ScalCom-2010, art. no. 5578112, pp. 749-754.

Yassein, M. B., Aljawarneh, S., Masa'deh, E. Yassein,A new elastic trickle timer algorithm for Internet of Things, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2017, 89, pp. 38-47.

Usmani, J., Prakash, J., A Secure Gateway Discovery Protocol Using Rabin Signature Scheme in MANET, (2017) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 7 (5), pp. 439-447.

Adnan, A., Hanapi, Z., Geographic Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: Design and Security Perspectives, (2015) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 5 (4), pp. 197-211.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize