Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Inter-User Interference Reduction in Massive MIMO for Linear and Planar Arrays

Carlos Daniel Altamirano(1*), Celso de Almeida(2)

(1) Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Ecuador
(2) Department of Communications, FEEC, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil
(*) Corresponding author



The huge demand for wireless communications has brought the study of new techniques, such as the use of a very large number of antennas at a base station serving multiple users terminals with a single antenna each one, known as massive MIMO. This technique exploits the “favorable propagation paradigm.” However, in constrained spaces, it is limited by interference among users. In this work, the inter-user interference reduction factor in massive MIMO is evaluated for linear and planar arrays as a function of the inter-antenna spacing. Furthermore, exact expressions for sub-6 GHz frequencies or mmWave are obtained, showing that inter-user interference does not vanish in massive MIMO with constrained space. Finally, by measuring the array edge length, the behavior of linear and planar antenna arrays is analyzed, evidencing array compaction and the inter-user interference trade off.
Copyright © 2019 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Antenna Arrays; Favorable Propagation; Inter-User Interference; Massive MIMO; mmWave

Full Text:



M. Agiwal, A. Roy and N. Saxena, Next Generation 5G Wireless Networks: A Comprehensive Survey, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Volume 18, (Issue 3), thirdquarter 2016, Pages 1617-1655.

J. G. Andrews et al., What Will 5G Be?, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Volume 32, (Issue 6), June 2014, Pages 1065-1082.

T. L. Marzetta, Noncooperative cellular wireless with unlimited numbers of base station antennas, IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., Volume 9, (Issue 11), Nov. 2010, Pages 3590–3600.

E. Björnson, E. G. Larsson and T. L. Marzetta, Massive MIMO: ten myths and one critical question, IEEE Communications Magazine, Volume 54, (Issue 2), Feb. 2016, Pages 114-123.

L. Lu, et al., An overview of massive MIMO: Benefits and challenges. IEEE Journal of Selected topics in Signal Processing, Volume 8, (Issue 5), Oct. 2014, Pages 742-758.

F. Rusek, et al., Scaling up MIMO: Opportunities and challenges with very large arrays. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Volume 30, (Issue 1), Jan. 2013, Pages 40-60.

E. G. Larsson, F. Tufvesson, O. Edfors, and T. L. Marzetta, Massive MIMO for next generation wireless systems, IEEE Commun. Mag., Volume 52, (Issue 2), Feb. 2014, Pages 186–195.

K. Zheng, et al., Survey of large-scale MIMO systems. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Volume 17, (Issue 3), thirdquarter 2015, Pages 1738-1760.

H. Q. Ngo, E. G. Larsson, and T. L. Marzetta, Energy and spectral efficiency of very large multiuser MIMO systems, IEEE Trans. Commun., Volume 61, (Issue 4), Apr. 2013, Pages 1436–1449.

Adhikary, A. Ashikhmin and T. Marzetta, Uplink interference reduction in large scale antenna systems, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume 65, (Issue 5), Jan. 2017, Pages 2194-2206.

H. Q. Ngo, E. G. Larsson, and T. L. Marzetta, Aspects of favorable propagation in massive MIMO, Proceedings of the 22nd European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), pp. 76-80, Sept. 2014.

T. L. Marzetta, E.G. Larsson, and H.Q. Ngo, Fundamentals of Massive MIMO (Cambridge University Press, 2016).

C. X. Wang, et al, Recent advances and future challenges for massive MIMO channel measurements and models. Science China Information Sciences, Volume 59, (Issue 2), Feb. 2016, Pages 1-16.

K. Zheng, S. Ou, and X. Yin, Massive MIMO channel models: A survey. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Volume 2014, 2014, Pages 1-10.

S. K. Teshima, and C. de Almeida, Lower bound on normalised interference mean and standard deviation for CDMA systems using antenna arrays, Electronics Letters, Volume 36, (Issue 21), 2000, Pages 1761-1763.

C. D. Altamirano, C. de Almeida, Inter-user interference reduction factor for 3-D massive MIMO systems. Proceedings of 8th IEEE Latin-American Conference on Communications (LATINCOM), Nov. 2016.

Z. Gao, L. Dai, C. Yuen and Z. Wang, Asymptotic orthogonality analysis of time-domain sparse massive MIMO channels, IEEE Communications Letters, Volume 19, (Issue 10), Oct. 2015, Pages 1826-1829.

C. Masouros, and M. Matthaiou, Space-constrained massive MIMO: Hitting the wall of favorable propagation. IEEE Communications Letters, Volume 19, (Issue 5), Mar. 2015, Pages 771-774.

A. J. Garcia-Rodriguez and C. Masouros, Exploiting the increasing correlation of space constrained massive MIMO for CSI relaxation, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume 64, (Issue 4), Apr. 2016, Pages 1572–1587.
S. Biswas, C. Masouros, and T. Ratnarajah, Performance analysis of large multiuser MIMO systems with space-constrained 2-D antenna arrays, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Volume 15, (Issue 5), May 2016, Pages 3492–3505.

T. S. Rappaport, G. R. MacCartney, M. K. Samimi and S. Sun, Wideband Millimeter-Wave Propagation Measurements and Channel Models for Future Wireless Communication System Design, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume. 63, (Issue 9), Sept 2015, Pages 3029-3056.

S. Buzzi and C. D’Andrea, Massive MIMO 5G cellular networks: mm-wave versus mu-wave frequencies, ZTE Communications, special issue on 5G New Radio, Volume. 15, (Issue S1), 2017, Pages 41-49.

Q. Zhang, S. Jin, K. K. Wong, H. Zhu and M. Matthaiou, Power scaling of uplink massive MIMO systems with arbitrary-rank channel means, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Volume 8, (Issue 5), Oct. 2014, Pages 966-981.

E. Björnson, L. Van der Perre, S. Buzzi and Erik G. Larsson, Massive MIMO in Sub-6 GHz and mmWave: Physical, Practical, and Use-Case Differences, e-print arXiv:1803.11023, Mar. 2018.

D. Tse, and P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication, (Cambridge University Press, 2006).

G. Gasper, and M. Rahman, Basic Hypergeometric Series, (Cambridge University Press, 2004).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2021 Praise Worthy Prize