Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Energy-Aware Objective Function for Routing Protocol in Internet of Things

Muneer Bani Yassein(1*), Firas Al Balas(2), Alaa Odeh(3)

(1) Department of Computer Science, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
(2) Department of Computer Science, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
(3) Department of Computer Science, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
(*) Corresponding author


DOI: https://doi.org/10.15866/irecap.v7i3.11741

Abstract


In recent years, the internet of things technology, commonly called “IoT” is one of the most important fields that has become the tremendous surge of interest from researchers. Internet of things visualizes an important future in which physical and digital entities can be connected, through suitable communication technologies, to allow development of new type of applications and services. However for IoT deployment, Energy efficiency is a critical concern due to the limited power capability of the sensing nodes. The objective function is used to construct a network and to determine how the mote selects and optimize path within a network based on specific metrics. Minimum rank with hysteresis objective function relies on quality link metric that is used to deal with the variation in link quality in the network. However, reliable links consume more energy than other nodes. This will drain the batteries of the overburdened nodes faster than other nodes which lead to reduce the overall network lifetimes as well as increase the probability of nodes failure. Therefore, to balance the power consumption rate among nodes, the node that has less power consumption value should be considered in routes selection. Thus, we have proposed a new objective function to balance power consumption among the nodes and prolong the node's battery while ensuring good packet reception ratio. The results have been compared with standard objective function. Simulation results verify that our proposed objective function achieves better energy balance and reduces the energy consumption while keeping good packet delivery ratio.
Copyright © 2017 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.

Keywords


IoT; RPL; Objective Function; Energy Consumption; Contiki; LLNs; MRHOF

Full Text:

PDF


References


Gershenfeld, N.,Krikorian, R., &Cohen, D. (2004). The Internet of Things. Scientific American, the Sciences.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1004-76

Li, B., &Yu, J. (2011). Research and application on the smart home based on component technologies and internet of things. Procedia Engineering, vol. 15, pp. 2087–2092.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.08.390

Kelly,S. D. T., Suryadevara, N. K., &Mukhopadhyay, S. C. (2013).Towards the implementation of IoT for environmental condition monitoring in homes. Sensors Journal, IEEE, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 3846–3853.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jsen.2013.2263379

Zanella, A., Bui, N., Castellani, A.,Vangelista, L., & Zorzi, M. (2014). Internet of things for smart cities. Internet of Things Journal, IEEE, vol. 1,no. 1, pp. 22–32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jiot.2014.2306328

Rohokale, V. M., Prasad, N. R., & Prasad, R. (2011). A cooperative internet of things (iot) for rural healthcare monitoring and control in Wireless Communication, Vehicular Technology, Information Theory and Aerospace & Electronic Systems Technology (Wireless VITAE), 2nd International Conference on. IEEE, pp. 1–6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/wirelessvitae.2011.5940920

Fan, Y. J., Yin, Y. H., Da Xu, L., Zeng,Y., &Wu, F. (2014). Iot-based smart rehabilitation system. Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 1568–1577.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tii.2014.2302583

Yang, Z.,Wang, X., & Sun, H. (2013). Study on urban its architecture based on the internet of things. in LTLGB 2012. Springer, pp. 139–143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-34651-4_24

Qasem, M., Al-Dubai, A., &Yassien, M. B. (2015, October). A Dynamic Power Tuning for the Constrained Application Protocol of Internet of Things. In Computer and Information Technology; Ubiquitous Computing and Communications; Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing; Pervasive Intelligence and Computing (CIT/IUCC/DASC/PICOM), 2015 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 1118-1122). IEEE.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/cit/iucc/dasc/picom.2015.167

Fischione, C.,Park, P., Di Marco, P., & Johansson, KH. (2011). Design principles of wireless sensor networks protocols for control applications, Wireless Networking Based Control, 203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7393-1_9

SuraiyaTarannum, (2010). Energy Conservation Challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Comprehensive Study. Wireless Sensor Network, 2, 483-491.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/wsn.2010.26060

Winter, T., Thubert, P., Brandt, A., Clausen, T., Hui, J., Kelsey, P. Levis, R., Pister, K., Struik,R., &Vasseur, J. (2012). RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks. RFC 6550, IETF ROLL WG.
http://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc6550

Vasseur, J.-P., Kim, M.,Pister, K.,Dejean, N., &Barthel,D. (2012). Routing metrics used for path calculation in low-power and lossy networks. Tech. Rep.
http://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc6551

Thubert,P. (2012). Objective function zero for the routing protocol for low power and lossy networks (rpl). IETF Internet Draft: draft-ietfroll-of,0-03.
http://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc6552

Gnawali, O. (2012).The minimum rank with hysteresis objective function. IETF Internet Draft: draft-ietfroll-of 0-03.
http://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc6719

Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S., &Palaniswami, M. (2013). Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future Generation Computer Systems, 29(7), 1645-1660.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2013.01.010

Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2010). The internet of things: A survey. Computer networks, 54(15), 2787-2805
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2010.05.010

Bandyopadhyay, D., & Sen, J. (2011). Internet of things: Applications and challenges in technology and standardization. Wireless Personal Communications, 58(1), 49-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11277-011-0288-5

Evans, D. (2011). The internet of things: How the next evolution of the internet is changing everything. CISCO white paper, 1, 1-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50758-3_8

Vermesan O., Friess, P., Guillemin, P., Sundmaeker, H., Eisenhauer, M., Moessner K., Arndt, M., M. Spirito, Medagliani, R.Giaffreda, S.Gusmeroli,L.Ladid, Serrano, M., Hauswirth, M., Baldini, G., (2014) Internet of things strategic research and innovation agenda. In: Vermesan O,&Friess P (eds) Internet of things – from research and innovation to market deployment. River Publishers, Aalborg, pp 7–142
http://dx.doi.org/10.13052/rp-9788793379824

Jules. (2006). RFID security and privacy: a research survey, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol.24, No.2, pp. 381–394.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jsac.2005.861395

Madakam, S. (2015) Internet of Things: Smart Things, International Journal of Future Computer and Communication, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 250-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7763/ijfcc.2015.v4.395

Christin, D., Reinhardt, A., Mogre, S., &Steinmetz, R. (2009). Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things: Selected Challenges, Proceedings of the 8th GI/ITG KuVSFachgesprächDrahtloseSensornetze, 31-34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-11917-0_3

Akyildiz, I., Su, W., Sankarasubramaniam, Y., & Cayirci, E. (2002). A survey on sensor networks, IEEE Communications Magazine 40 (8) 104–112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/mcom.2002.1024422

Yick, J., Mukherjee, B., &Ghosal D. (2008). Wireless sensor network survey, Computer Networks, Vol.52, No.15, pp. 2292–2330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2008.04.002

Radoi, I. E., Shenoy, A., & Arvind, D. K. (2012, June). Evaluation of routing protocols for internet-enabled wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Communications, Venice, Italy (pp. 24-29).
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/50736

Shelby,Z.,&Bormann, C. (2009). 6LoWPAN: The Wireless Embedded Internet, ISBN: 9780470747995 (H/B), John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470686218

Roman, R., & Lopez, J. (2009). Integrating wireless sensor networks and the Internet. Internet Research 19, no. 2 pp. 246-259.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10662240910952373

Sehgal, A. (2013). Using the ContikiCooja Simulator. Computer Science, Jacobs University Bremen Campus Ring, 1, 28759.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11114/jets.v1i2.170

Kim, K., Park, S., Chakeres, I., Perkins, C. (2007). Dynamic MANET on-demand for6LoWPAN (DYMO-low) routing. In: Internet Draft: draft- montenegro-6lowpandymo-low-routing-03
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icdcsw.2009.60

Tavakoli, M. (2009). HYDRO: A hybrid routing protocol for lossy and low power networks. In: IETF Internet Draft: draft-tavakoli-hydro-01.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/smartgrid.2010.5622053

Kim, K., Yoo, S., Park, J., Park, S.D., Lee, J. (2005). Hierarchical routing over6LoWPAN (HiLow). In: IETF: Internet Draft: draft-deniel-6lowpan-hilowhierarchical-routing-00.txt, vol. 38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc4228

Gaddour, O., Koubâa, A., Baccour, N., &Abid, M. (2014) OF-FL: QoS-Aware Fuzzy Logic Objective Function for the RPL Routing Protocol. In: 12th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WiOpt).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/wiopt.2014.6850321

Fotouhi, H. (2015) Reliable Mobility Support in Low-Power Wireless Networks. Phd Thesis CISTER-TR-150502, CISTER Research Center.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2014.10.009

Altwassi, H.,Qasem, M., BaniYassein, M.,& Al-Dubai, A. (2015). Performance Evaluation of RPL Objective Functions. The 14th IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications (IUCC 2015), Liverpool, UK, pp. 1606 – 1613.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/cit/iucc/dasc/picom.2015.242

Gaddour, O., &Koubaa, A. (2012).RPL in a nutshell: A survey. Computer Networks, Vol. 56, No. 14, pp. 3163-3178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2012.06.016

Pavkovic, B.,Duda,A., Hwang, W., &Theoleyre, F. (2014). Efficient topology construction for RPL over IEEE 802.15.4 in wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Networks, Elsevier, pp. 25–38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2013.08.009

Tsvetkov,T. (2011). RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks. Sensor Nodes–Operation, Network and Application (SN), vol. 59, pp. 2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc6554

Vasseur, J., Agarwal, N., Hui, J., Shelby, Z., Bertrand, P., &Chauvenet, C. (2011). RPL: The IP Routing Protocol Designed for Low Power and Lossy Networks; Internet Protocol for Smart Objects (IPSO) Alliance: Santa Clara, CA, USA.
http://dx.doi.org/10.17487/rfc6553

Tsiftes, N., Eriksson, J., &Dunkels, A. (2010). Low-power Wireless IPv6 Routing with ContikiRPL. The 9th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, ACM, pp 406–407, Stockholm, Sweden.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1791212.1791277

Pavkovic, B.,Duda, A., Hwang, W., &Theoleyre, F. (2014) Efficient topology construction for RPL over IEEE 802.15.4 in wireless sensor networks, Ad Hoc Networks, Elsevier, pp. 25–38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2013.08.009

Sharma, R.,& Jayavignesh, T. (2015). Quantitative Analysis and Evaluation of RPL with Various Objective Functions for 6LoWPAN. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 8(19), DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i19/76696.
http://dx.doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i19/76696

Kamgueu, P. O.,Nataf,E.,Ndi´e, T. D., &. Festor,O. (2013). Energy-based routing metric for rpl. Research Report RR-8208, INRIA.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/lcnw.2015.7365929

Iova, O., Theoleyre F.,& Noel, T. (2015). Using multiparent routing in rpl to increase the stability and the lifetime of the network. Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 29, pp. 45–62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2015.01.020

Xiao, W., Liu, J., Jiang, N.,& Shi,H. (2014). An optimization of the object function for routing protocol of low-power and lossy networks. In Systems and Informatics (ICSAI), 2014 2nd International Conference on. IEEE, pp. 515–519.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icsai.2014.7009341

Gonizzi, P., Monica, R., & Ferrari, G. (2013). Design and evaluation of a delay efficient rpl routing metric. In Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2013 9th International. IEEE, pp. 1573–1577
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iwcmc.2013.6583790

Karkazis, Leligou, P., Sarakis, H.C., Zahariadis, L., Trakadas, T., Velivassaki, P., &Capsalis, T.H. (2012). Design of primary and composite routing metrics for RPL-compliant wireless sensor network .In Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Telecommunications and Multimedia (TEMU), Chania, Greece, pp. 13–18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/temu.2012.6294705

Chang L., Lee T., Chen S., & Liao C. (2013). Energy-Efficient Oriented Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks. In: IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernatics.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/smc.2013.651

Nurmio, J., Nigussie, E., &Poellabauer, C. (2015). Equalizing Energy Distribution in Sensor Nodes through Optimization of RPL. In: IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology; Ubiquitous Computing and Communications; Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing; Pervasive Intelligence and Computing.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/cit/iucc/dasc/picom.2015.1

Tang, W., Ma, X., Huang, J., & Wei, j. (2015). Toward Improved RPL: A Congestion Avoidance Multipath Routing Protocol with Time Factor for Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Journal of Sensors.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8128651

Tsiftes, N., Eriksson, J., Finne, N., Fredrik, O., Höglund, J., &Dunkels, A. (2010). A Framework for Low-Power IPv6 Routing Simulation, Experimentation, and Evaluation. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM conference, pp. 479–480.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1851275.1851273

Nuvolone, M. (2010). Stability analysis of the delays of the routing protocol over low power and lossy networks, Master’s thesis, KTH RIT.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/glocomw.2010.5700399

Voigt, T. (2012). Contiki COOJA Crash Course. The International School on Cooperative Robots and Sensor Networks (RoboSense School 2012), Hammamet, Tunisia.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/waina.2016.64

“Contik O.S and coojasimulatoer” http://www.contiki-os.org/[Last accessed May2015].

Osterlind, F., Dunkels, A., Eriksson, J., Finne, N., & Voigt, T. (2006, November). Cross-level sensor network simulation with cooja. In Local computer networks, proceedings 2006 31st IEEE conference on (pp. 641-648).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/lcn.2006.322172

Fredrik Osterlind. Mobility cooja plugin. https://github.com/contikios/contiki/wiki, 2014.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2019 Praise Worthy Prize