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A New Energy-Efficient Hybrid and Clustering Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

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Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are anticipated to play major role in the development and deployment of many emerging technological solutions such as Internet of Things (IoT) and smart places. The energy-efficiency issue has been widely investigated in WSNs, it is still in its infancy, creating hurdles for the further evolution of WSNs. To improve the energy efficiency, many power-aware routing protocols have been investigated. One of the most effective solutions is the hybrid distributed clustering routing approach. Although this scheme has shown superiority against it counterparts, it exhibits more energy consumption in the long-range transmission between the cluster heads (CHs) and the BS. Thus, in an attempt to solve this problem, this paper proposes two energy-efficient techniques that focus on the data transmission between CHs and the BS and the energy consumed during this operation. In the first proposed technique, the CHs deliver data to the BS indirectly via one regular sensor, namely anchor. On the other hand, CHs in the second technique send data to the BS via multiple regular sensors. By virtue of the proposed mechanism, we investigate a new data transmission approach between different objects, including anchors, CHs and BSs that affect the energy efficiency. Intensive simulation experiments show that the proposed mechanisms are more energy-efficient.
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WSN; Energy Consumption; Network Lifetime; HEED; AD-HEED; N-HEED

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