Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Computation of Near-Field and Far-Field Radiation Characteristics of Acoustic Transducers for Underwater Acoustic Imaging

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



This paper proposes a novel approach through analytical formulation for the determination of the radiation pattern of acoustic transducers at any arbitrary observation distance which covers both the near-field as well as the far-field. The proposed near-field/far-field analysis is generic and can be applied to a wide variety of acoustic apertures. The radiation pattern of the acoustic transducer at any arbitrary point of observation (both the near-field and far-field) is obtained by the vector summation of the fields radiated by the array of point sources located on the aperture of the acoustic transducer. The validity and novelty of the proposed approach have been proved by treating the far-field as a special case of near-field with the relevant distance criterion. The simulation studies show that near-field radiation patterns of the acoustic transducer exhibit changes in the profile of the amplitude patterns when the distance of observation is varied. The formation of a well-defined main beam of the radiation pattern occurs only after a distance of separation of about R=D2/λ from the radiating aperture. The presented analytical formulation has an attribute of wider generality because of its applicability to a variety of geometrical configurations of the aperture of an acoustic transducer.
Copyright © 2020 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Aperture; Far Field; Near Field; Point Source; Radiation Pattern; Underwater Acoustic Imaging

Full Text:



Khairul A. Ahmad, A.B.D. Manaf, M.F.A. Rahman, Design of polyimide based piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasonic transducer for underwater imaging application, Proceedings of the International Conference on Imaging, Signal Processing and Communication, pp. 63-66, Penang, Malaysia, 2017.

Eric Westman, Underwater Localization and Mapping with Imaging Sonar, Ph.D. Thesis, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, 2019.

Xuebo Zhang, Biao Fang, Synthetic aperture image formation for multi-receiver synthetic aperture sonar, IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communications, pp.2060-2064, Dec 2017.

Sibo Sun, Yingchun Chen, LonghaoQiu, Guangpu Zhang, and Chunhui Zhao, Inverse Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imaging of Underwater Vehicles Utilizing 3-D Rotations, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 45, Issue 2,2020.

Simone Sternini, Albert Y Liang and Francesco Lanza di Scalea, Ultrasonic synthetic aperture imaging with interposed transducer–medium coupling path, Sage Journals, Structural Health Monitoring, Vol. 18, Issue: 5-6, pp. 1543-1556, 2018.

Herlambang, T., Subchan, S., Nurhadi, H., Design of Motion Control Using Proportional Integral Derivative for UNUSAITS AUV, (2018) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 12 (11), pp. 928-938.

Hyo Won Park, Modeling and Simulation of Acoustic Pressure Field for Ultrasonic Tactile Displays, Master thesis, Lehigh University, Pennsylvania, USA, 2017.

Chater, N., Mazri, T., Benbrahim, M., Study, Simulation and Optimization of an 8×1 Array Antenna for Electronic Scanning Radar Application, (2018) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 8 (6), pp. 469-476.

A. R. Selfridge, G. S. Kino, and B. T. Khuri-Yakub, A theory for the radiation of a narrow-strip acoustic transducer, Journal for Applied Physics Letters, Volume 37, (Issue-1), 1980, pages 35-36.

Rongrong Lu, Rama Rao, and Nafi Toksoz, Measured radiation patterns of the scale model dipole tool, Master of Science Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2014.

Hayden J. Callow, Signal processing for synthetic aperture sonar image enhancement, Ph.D. Thesis. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 2003.

Peter R. Stepanishen, Transient radiation from pistons in an infinite planar baffle, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 49, 2005, pages 1629-1971.

Haim Azhari,Basics of biomedical ultrasounds for engineers, 1stEdition, (John Wiley and Sons, 2010, pp. 153-185).

Brett T. Walkenhorst, Test Environments for 5G Millimeter-Wave Devices, IEEE European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Poland, 2019.

Abdul Malek, N., Mat Ramli, N., Abdullah, K., Null Positioning of Dipole Antenna Array Considering Coupling Effect, (2017) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 7 (5), pp. 370-377.

Constantine A. Balanis (1997), Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, (©John wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997, pp. 25-105).

Douglas A. Abraham, Underwater Acoustic Signal Processing: Modeling, Detection, and Estimation, (© Springer Nature Switzerland, 2019, pp. 3-196).

Lawrence J. Ziomek, An Introduction to Sonar Systems Engineering, (© Taylor& Francis Groups, 2017, pp. 1-200).

Daniel A. Cook, Daniel C. Brown, Synthetic Aperture Sonar Image Contrast Prediction, IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 43, Issue: 2, pp.523-535, 2018.

Jasmine Mathew, Acoustic Radiation and Scattering from Cylindrical Bodies and Analysis of Transducer Arrays. Ph.D. thesis. Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory, DRDO 2011.


Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize