Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Comparison of Empirical Path Loss Propagation Models with Building Penetration Path Loss Model

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Path loss Propagation models plays a fundamental role in planning and designing of mobile radio communication link. In this paper a building penetration path loss model was developed using AUTOCAD. The model involved the combination of three mechanisms of signal propagation; refraction, reflection and diffraction. The signal penetration through building wall was modelled as refraction using Fresnel Refraction Coefficient and the signal propagation through the roof was modelled as diffraction using the principle of knife-edge diffraction. The developed building penetration path loss model was compared with some empirical path loss models namely, Log distance path loss, Okumura, HATA and COST-231 models and the results showed that the models compared accurately with the existing path loss models. Hence, it can be stated that the developed building penetration path loss model can be used to accurately predict signal attenuation in buildings located in an urban environment.
Copyright © 2016 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Attenuation; Building; Path Loss; Propagation Models; Penetration; Signal

Full Text:



P. Elechi and P.O. Otasowie. Determination of Path Loss Exponent for GSM Wireless Access in Rivers State using Building Penetration Loss. The Mediterranean Journal of Electronics and Communication, Volume 11, (Issue. 1), 2015, Pages 822-830.

J.J. Biebuma,and B.O. OmijehPath Loss Model Using Geographic Information System. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume. 3, (Issue. 3), 2013, Pages 269-275.

V. S. Abhayawardhana, I. J. Wassell, D. Crosby, M. P. Sellars and M. G. Brown, "Comparison of empirical propagation path loss models for fixed wireless access systems," 2005 IEEE 61st Vehicular Technology Conference, 2005, pp. 73-77 Vol. 1.

D.J. Griffiths. Introduction to Electrodynamics. 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, Dorling Kindersley: 2007, Pages 102-114.

L.D. Hai, N.M. Khai, T.V. Quy,and N.X. Huan. Material Composition and Properties of Red Mud Coming From Alumina Processing Plant Tanrai, Lamdong, Vietna, International journal of Research In Earth and Environmental Science, Volume. 1, (Issue 6), 2014, pages. 1-7.

H. Hashemi, "The indoor radio propagation channel," in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 81, no. 7, pp. 943-968, Jul 1993.

A.Katariya, A. Yadav, N. Jainand G. Tomar. BER Performance Criteria based on Standard IEEE 802.11a for OFDM in Multipath Fading Environment, International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Systems, 2011, Pages. 452-459.

I.R. Kenyon. The Light Fantastic: Introduction to Classic and Quantum Optics”, Oxford University Press, 2008, Pages 45-51.

M. Kumar, V. Kumar, and S. Malik. Performance and Analysis of Propagation Models for Predicting RSS for Efficient Handoff, International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research and Technology, Volume1,(Issue2), 2012, Pages 54-61.

M. A. Masud, M. Samsuzzaman. and M.A. Rahman. Bit Error Rate Performance Analysis on Modulation Techniques of Wideband Code Division Multiple Access, Journal of Telecommunication, Volume1, (Issue2), 2010, Pages 22-29.

A. Medeisis and A. Kajackas On the use of universal Okumura-Hata Propagation Prediction model in Rural Areas, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference proceeding Volume 3, 2000, Pages 450 – 453.

N.V. Mejuto. Penetration and Transmission of UHF Radio Waves into/through Buildings-a Literature Review, Graduation Report, Eindhoven University of Technology, 1999. Pp. 91-96.

D. Molkdar, "Review on radio propagation into and within buildings," in IEE Proceedings H - Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 61-73, Feb. 1991.

A. Neskovic, N. Neskovicand G. Paunovic. Modern Approaches in Modelling of Mobile Radio Systems Propagation Environment, IEEE Communication Survey, 2000, Pages 25-28.

N.L.M.B. Nordon, Interface Developing for Hata Model using Matlab, UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, 2007, Pp. 24-28.

A.N. Okunborand R.O. Okonkwo. Characterization of Signal Attenuation using Path Loss Exponent in South-South Nigeria, IJETTCS, Volume3, (Issue3), 2014, Pages. 100-104.

T.S. Rappaport. Indoor Radio Communications for Factories of the Future, IEEE Commun. Mag., 1989, Pages15-24.

T.S. Rappaport. Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 2002, pp. 75-92.

M.N.O. Sadiku. Optical and Wireless Communications: Next Generation Networks, CRC Press, 1st Edition: 2002, pp. 120-127.

S. Sarooshyariand N. Madaya. An Introduction to Mobile Radio Propagation and Characterization of Frequency Bands, Wireless Comm. Technologies, IEEE, Volume16, 1996, Pages332:559.

S.R. Saunders. Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems, Wiley Publishers, 2000, Pp. 409 - 415

S. R. Saunders and A. Aragon-Zavala. Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication System, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2007, pp. 165-170.

P. Schneider, F. Lambrechtand A. Baier. Enhancement of the Okumura-Hata Propagation using Detailed Morphological and Building Data, IEEE Comm, 1996, Pages 471-475.

P. K. Sharma and R. K. Singh. Comparative Analysis of Propagation Path Loss Models with Field Measured Data, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Volume2, (Issue6), 2010, Pages 2008-2013.

Y. Singh. Comparison of Okumura, HATA and COST-231 Models on the Bases of Path Loss and Signal strength, International Journal of Computer Application, Volume59, (Issue11), 2012, Pages 37-41.

J. Spetzlerand R. Snieder. The Fresnel Volume and Transmitted Waves, The Journal of geophysics, Volume 69, 2004, Pages 653-663.

J. Vaughan and B. Anderson. Channels, Propagation and Antennas for Mobile Communications, IEE Publishers, 2003, Pages 753 -760.

N. Yarkoniand N. Blaunstein. Prediction of Propagation Characteristics in Indoor Radio Communication Environments, Progress in Electromagnetic Research, PIER Volume 59, 2006, Pages 151-174.

P. Elechi and P.O. Otasowie,Analysis of a Developed Building Penetration Path LossModel for GSM Wireless Access, International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, Volume 3 (Issue 6), 2015, Pages 898-909.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize