Measurements of the Outdoor-To-Indoor Attenuation of Mobile Phone Signal
This work reports a series of measurements of the attenuation of UMTS and GSM mobile phone signal by buildings structures in the city of Rome. The context of the research is the concern about the exposure of the population resident in the buildings to electromagnetic fields emitted by the radio base stations of the mobile phone radio access network. The aim of the research is to analyze a conservative method of measurement for the outdoor-to-indoor attenuation. The measurement method takes intrinsically into account the presence of apertures like doors and windows on the wall of the buildings, the materials around the apertures and within the buildings. The measurements of attenuation are carried out by instrumentations able to demodulate the radio base station antennas RF carriers. Four different topologies of urban buildings are considered: reinforced concrete buildings, buildings between late 1800 and early 1900th century, historical buildings in the inner Rome and steel and glass buildings structures. Measurements of electromagnetic attenuation are in the range 6 - 27 dB. A numerical analysis of the attenuation of apertures like door/windows has been computed and the results discussed. The results show that the attenuation depends on the material of the walls and by the objects indoor located.
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.
G. Antonini, A. Orlandi and S. D'Elia, "Shielding Effects of Reinforced Concrete Structures to Electromagnetic Fields Due to GSM and UMTS Systems", IEEE Trans. on Magnetics Vol. 39, pp. 1582-1585, May 2003.
Isabona Joseph, Konyeha. C.C, Experimental Study of Umts Radio Signal Propagation Characteristics by Field Measurement. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) e-ISSN : 2320-0847 p-ISSN : 2320-0936, Volume-02, Issue-07, pp-99-106. 2013.
Eric Moulines, Afef Ben Hadj Alaya-Feki, Alain Le Cornec. Optimization of radio measurements exploitation in wireless mobile networks. JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 2, NO. 7, DECEMBER 2007.
Ferreira L., Kuipers M., Rodrigues C., Correia L.M. Characterisation of Signal Penetration into Buildings for GSM and UMTS. IEEE Wireless Communication Systems, 2006. ISWCS '06. 3rd International Symposium on. DOI: 10.1109/ISWCS.2006.4362260.
S. Trinchero, A. Benedetto, L. Anglesio, G. d’Amore and D. Trinchero, Exposure Measuring Techniques for Wide Band Mobile Radiocommunication, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Special Issue, vol. 111, n° 4, pp.429-434,2004.
O. Gen¸c, M. Bayrak, and E. Yaldız. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF GSM BANDS TO THE ELECTROMAGNETIC POLLUTION IN THE RF SPECTRUM. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 101, 17–32, 2010.
A. Ogunsola, U. Reggiani, L. Sandrolini, "Shielding effectiveness of concrete buildings”, IEEE-Int. Symp. on Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electromagnetic Ecology, 2005.
William C. Stone, “Electromagnetic Signal Attenuation in Construction Materials”, NIST Construction Automation Program Report No. 3, October 1997.
R. Wilson, “Propagation Losses through Common Building Materials 2.4 GHz vs. 5 GHz”, University of Southern California, August 2002.
R. Gahleitner, “Radio wave propagation in and into urban buildings”, Technischen Universitat Wien, May 1994.
G. Durgin, T. S. Rappaport, Hao Xu, “Radio Path Loss and Penetration Loss Measurements in and around Homes and Trees at 5.85 GHz”, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, June 1998.
K.C. Allen, N. DeMinco, J.R. Hoffman, Y. Lo P.B. Papazian, “Building Penetration Loss Measurements at 900 MHz, 11.4 GHz, and 28.8 GHz”, NTIA Report 94-306, May 1994.
W. Y. Ali-Ahmad,“Propagation Model Development and Radio Planning for Future WiMAX Systems Deployment in Beirut”, American University of Beirut, Spring 2006.
Richalot, E., Bonilla, M., Man-Fai Wong, Fouad-Hanna, V., Baudrand, H., Wiart, J., "Electromagnetic propagation into reinforced-concrete walls," Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on , vol.48, no.3, pp.357,366, Mar 2000.
Savov, S.V.; Herben, M.H.A.J. "Application of the modal transmission-line method to radiowave propagation through building walls", IEE Proceedings - Science Measurement and Technology, Volume.149, Issue.5, pp.258, 2002.
Bürgi, A; Frei, P; Theis, G; Mohler, E;Braun-Fahrländer, C; Fröhlich, J; Neubauer, G;Egger, M; Röösli, M; “A model for radiofrequency electromagnetic field predictions at outdoor and indoor locations in the context of epidemiological research,” Bioelectromagnetics 31(3): 226-236; 2010.
Michel Mouly and Marie-Bernadette Pautet, The GSM System for Mobile Communications, University of Michigan, ISBN-10: 0945592159, June 1992.
Cerri, G, De Leo, R., Micheli, D., Russo, P., “Base-station network planning including environmental impact control,” Communications, IEE Proceedings- Volume:151, Issue: 3, 2004.
Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, WCDMA for UMTS: HSPA Evolution and LTE, Wiley, ISBN-10: 0470686464, 2010.
Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, LTE for UMTS: Evolution to LTE-Advanced, Wiley, ISBN-10: 0470660007, 2011.
Davide Micheli, Alessandra Curto, Marina Mazzurco, Laura Pierucci, Romano Fantacci, Renato Simoni, “Handset and Network Quality Performance Benchmarking for QoE Improvement,” Second IEEE Workshop on Quality of Experience for Multimedia Communications - QoEMC2013, in conjunction with IEEE Globecom 2013) Atlanta, GA USA, 13 December, 2013, in press.
S. Blanch, J. Romeu, A. Cardama ”Near field in the vicinity of wireless base-station antennas: an exposure compliance approach”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 685-692, May 2002.
Mobile Phones and Health. Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones - http://www.iegmp.org.uk/report/text.htm
P. Bernardi, M. Caragnaro, S. Pisa, and E. Piuzzi, “Human exposure to radio base-station antennas in urban environment,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 48, pp. 1996–2002, Nov. 2000.
Yelen, S., Seker, S.S., Kunter, F.C., “Radio propagation path loss prediction of UMTS for an urban area,” Electromagnetic Field Computation (CEFC), 2010 14th Biennial IEEE Conference on, pp. 1, 2010.
Delisle, G.Y, Lefevre, J.-P., Lecours, M., Chouinard, J.-Y., “Propagation loss prediction: A comparative study with application to the mobile radio channel,” Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:34 , Issue: 2 ), pp. 86 - 96, 1985.
Tarng, J.H., Liu, T.R., “Effective models in evaluating radio coverage on single floors of multifloor buildings,” Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:48 , Issue: 3 ), pp. 782 – 789, 1999.
Motley, A.J., Keenan, J.M.P., “Personal communication radio coverage in buildings at 900 MHz and 1700 MHz, ” Electronics Letters (Volume:24 , Issue: 12 ), pp. 763 – 764, 1988.
Tornevik, Christer, Berg, J.-E, Lotse, F.,Madfors, M., “Propagation models, cell planning and channel allocation for indoor applications of cellular systems,” Vehicular Technology Conference, 1993., 43rd IEEE, pp. 867 – 870, 1993.
D. Micheli, R. Pastore, A. Vricella, R.B. Morles, M. Marchetti, A. Delfini, F. Moglie, V. Mariani Primiani “Electromagnetic characterization and shielding effectiveness of concrete composite reinforced with carbon nanotubes in the mobile phones frequency band,” Materials Science and Engineering: B Volume 188, October 2014, pp. 119–129.
De Leo, R., Gradoni, G., Mazzoli, A., Moglie, F., Moriconi, G., Primiani, V.M., “Shielding effectiveness evaluation of densified-small-particles (DSP) cement composite,” Electromagnetic Compatibility - EMC Europe, 2008 International Symposium on, pp. 1-6, 8-12 Sept. 2008.
Pierucci, L., Romoli, A., Fantacci, R., Micheli, D. “An optimized neural network for monitoring Key Performance Indicators in HSDPA,” Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2010 IEEE 21st International Symposium on, pp. 2041-2045, 26-30 Sept. 2010.
G. Gradoni, F. Moglie, A.P Pastore, V. Mariani Primiani, "Numerical and experimental analysis of the field to enclosure coupling in reverberation chamber and comparison with anechoic chamber," Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on , vol.48, no.1, pp. 203,211, Feb. 2006. (URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1614054&isnumber=33884).
R. Recanatini, F. Moglie, V. Mariani Primiani, "Performance and Immunity Evaluation of Complete WLAN Systems in a Large Reverberation Chamber," Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on, vol.55, no.5, pp.806,815, Oct. 2013. (URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6423885&isnumber=6627992).
Gabriele Gradoni, Jen-Hao Yeh, Bo Xiao, Thomas M. Antonsen, Steven M. Anlage, Edward Ott, “Predicting the statistics of wave transport through chaotic cavities by the Random Coupling Model: a review and recent progress,” Cornell University Library, Nonlinear Sciences, Chaotic Dynamics, Statistical Mechanics, 26 Mar 2013. (URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.6526)
Primiani, V.M. ,Moglie, F., “Numerical Simulation of Reverberation Chamber Parameters Affecting the Received Power Statistics,” Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:54 , Issue: 3 ), pp. 522 – 532, 2012. (URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6030925)
Ramo S, Whinnery JR, Van Duzer T. Fields and Waves in Communication Eletronics. John Whiley & Sons, third edition; pp. 283-287. 1994.
D. Micheli, Alessandra Curto, Marina Mazzurco, Laura Pierucci, Romano Fantacci, Renato Simoni. “Handset and network quality performance benchmarking for QoE improvement,” Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2013 IEEE, pp 1145 – 1150.
J. Lähteenmäki,, "Testing and verification of indoor propagation models,"COST 231 TD(94)111, Sept 1994.
M. Badsberg, J. B. Andersen, P. Mogensen, "Exploitation of the terrain profile in the Hata model," COST 231 TD(95)9, Bern, January 1995.
U. Liebenow, P. Kuhlmann, "Theoretical investigations and wideband measurements on wave propagation in hilly terrain," Proc. IEEE VTC'94, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 1803-1806.
J. H. Causebrook, "Signal attenuation by buildings and trees," COST 231 TD(90)106, Darmstadt, 1990
J. Wiart, P. Metton, "Terrain influence on line of sight microcellular propagation," COST 231 TD(95)78, Florence, Italy, April 1995.
D. J. Cichon, W. Wiesbeck, "Indoor and outdoor propagation modeling in pico cells," in Proc. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Conference PIMRC´94, pp. 491-495, The Hague, The Netherlands, September 1994.
CCIR, vol. V Report 567-4, "Propagation data and prediction methods for the terrestrial land mobile service using the frequency range 30 MHz to 3 GHz".
P. Daniele, V. Degli-Esposti, G. Falciasecca, G. Riva, "Field prediction tools for wireless communications in outdoor and indoor environments," Proc. IEEE MTT-Symp. European Topical Congress "Technologies for Wireless Applications," Turin, Italy, November 1994
A. Ishimaru, Wave propagation and scattering in random media, vols. I and II, Academic, New York, 1978.
"Propagation Models" subgroup, "Building penetration losses," COST-231 TD(90)116 Rev.1, Florence, Italy, January 1991
A. M. D. Turkmani, J. D. Parsons, A. F. de Toledo, "Radio Propagation into Buildings at 1.8 GHz," COST-231 TD(90)117, Darmstadt, Germany, December 1990.
P. Backman, S. Lidbrink, T. Ljunggren, "Building penetration loss measurements at 1.7 GHz in micro cellular environments," COST 231 TD(90)121, Darmstadt, Germany, December 1990.
M. Sandén, "Building penetration loss measurements in the small cell environment," COST-231 TD(90)122, Darmstadt, Germany, December 1990.
J. Lähteenmäki, "Radiowave propagation in office buildings and underground halls," Proc. of European Microwave Conference, Espoo 1992, pp. 377-382.
P. Bartolomé, "Indoor propagation models validation," COST 231 TD(93)51, Barcelona, 1993.
S. Ruiz-Boqué, M Ballart, C. Clúa, R Agusti, "Propagation models for indoor mobile communications," COST 231 TD(91)14, Florence, Italy, 1991.
C. Törnevik, J.-E. Berg, F Lotse, "900 MHz propagation measurements and path loss models for different indoor environments," Proc. IEEE VTC´93, New Jersey, USA, 1993.
Pryor RW. Multiphysics Modeling Using COMSOL: A First Principles Approach. Sudbury MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2009.
RECOMMENDATION ITU-R P.1238-3. Propagation data and prediction methods for the planning of indoor radiocommunication systems and radio local area networks in the frequency range 900 MHz to 100 GHz. 1997-1999-2001-2003. pp:12-13
D. Micheli, A.Vricella, R.Pastore, M. MArchetti. Synthesis and electromagnetic characterization of frequency selective radar absorbing materials using carbon nanopowders. Carbon, Volume 77, October 2014, Pages 756–774: doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2014.05.080.
Dielectric Properties of Body Tissues in the frequency range 10 Hz - 100 GHz. ITALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, Institute for Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Florence (Italy), 1997-2012.
M. Albano, D.Micheli, G.Gradoni, R.B.Morles, M.Marchetti, F.Moglie, V.Mariani Primiani. Electromagnetic shielding of thermal protection system for hypersonic vehicles. Acta Astronautica, 87, 30–39, 2013.
G. Gradoni, D. Micheli, V. Mariani Primiani, F. Moglie, M. Marchetti. Determination of the electrical conductivity of carbon/carbon at high microwave frequencies. Carbon, Volume 54, April 2013, Pages 76–85. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2012.11.005.
Gradoni, G.; Arnaut, L.R., Higher Order Statistical Characterization of Received Power Fluctuations for Partially Coherent Random Fields, Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on , vol.51, no.3, pp.583,591, Aug. 2009. doi: 10.1109/TEMC.2009.2025030.
Gabriele Gradoni, Jen-Hao Yeh, Bo Xiao, Thomas M. Antonsen, Steven M. Anlage, Edward Ott, Predicting the statistics of wave transport through chaotic cavities by the random coupling model: A review and recent progress, Wave Motion, Volume 51, Issue 4, June 2014, Pages 606-621, ISSN 0165-2125, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wavemoti.2014.02.003.
Micheli D., Delfini A., Santoni F., Volpini F., ; Marchetti M. Measurement of electromagnetic field attenuation by building walls in the mobile phone and satellite navigation frequency bands. Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE (in press). DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2014.2376811.
Gabriele Gradoni, Thomas Antonsen, Steven Anlage, and Edward Ott, A statistical model for the excitation of cavities through apertures. IEEE Transaction on electromagnetic compatibility. In press.
Gobin V., ONERA Meudon, Labaune G., Alliot J.C., Degauque P.. Penetration of electromagnetic waves through loaded apertures. Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1990. AP-S. Merging Technologies for the 90's. Digest. 337 - 340 vol.1, 7-11 May 1990 doi: 10.1109/APS.1990.115116
Barazzetta, M., Micheli, D., Moglie, F., Primiani V.M.. Over-the-air performance testing of a real 4G LTE base station in a reverberation chamber. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), 2014 IEEE International Symposium on. Page(s): 903 - 908 4-8 Aug. 2014. DOI: 10.1109/ISEMC.2014.6899096
Barazzetta, M., Micheli, D., Gianola, P., Moglie, F., Mariani Primiani, V.. 4G-LTE base station output power estimation from statistical counters during over-the-air tests in reverberation chamber. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC Europe), 2014 International Symposium on, Page(s): 284 - 289 1-4 Sept. 2014. DOI: 10.1109/EMCEurope.2014.6930918.
Gabriele Gradoni, Thomas M. Antonsen,, Jr., and Edward Ott. Impedance and power fluctuations in linear chains of coupled wave chaotic cavities. Phys. Rev. E 86, 046204 – Published 5 October 2012.
H. J. St¨ockmann, Quantum Chaos - An Introduction (University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
- There are currently no refbacks.
Please send any question about this web site to email@example.com
Copyright © 2005-2020 Praise Worthy Prize