Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Location Based-Energy Aware Routing Approach for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Among all the wireless network architectures, Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) has got the attention of the researchers due to its ability to create a temporary network on a fly without any centralized infrastructure. Though, the mobility feature offers multiple paths to reach the destination from which an optimal path can be selected, minimizing energy consumption of the mobile nodes have always been a challenge in MANET routing. Since the mobile nodes are battery powered, it needs to be utilized very effectively in order to keep the network connected and functioning for longtime. In this paper, we proposed and implemented a Location Based Energy Aware Routing (LB-EAR) approach which achieves load balancing and increases network life time with improved energy efficiency. Variable Transmission Power model was proposed to achieve minimum energy consumption of nodes in the network and the probability of packet re-transmission rate was reduced by controlling network overhead with some topology control. Upon comparing and analyzing the simulation results with Location Aided Routing (LAR), LB-EAR approach achieves high energy efficiency, high packet delivery ratio with low end to end delay with reduced control overhead.
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Mobile Ad Hoc Network; Energy Consumption Model; Energy Efficient Approaches; Location Aided Routing; Load balancing; Network Performance Parameters

Full Text:



George Aggelou, "Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: From Wireless LANS to 4G Networks," Tata McGraw Hill Edition, 2010.

R.E Kahn, S.A. Gronemeyer, J. Burchfiel, and R.C. Kunzelman, "Advances in Packet Radio Technology," Proceedings of IEEE, pp. 1468-96, November 1978.

Al-Sakib Khan Pathan and Choong Seon Hong (2011), "Chapter 4: Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks", in Guide to Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, S.Misra et al. ISBN: 978-81-8489-747-0, Springer International Edition, pp-59-60.

Iwata, C-C. Chiang, G.Pei, M.Gerla, and T.W Chen, "Scalable Routing Strategies for Ad hoc Wireless Networks," IEEE JSAC, August 1999, Vol.17, No.8, pp.1369-79.

Marco Fotino and Floriano De Rango (2011), "Energy Issues and Energy Aware Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks", Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Protocol Design, Prof.Xin Wang (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-402-3, InTech.

P. Lettieri, M.B. Srivastava, "Advances in Wireless Terminals", IEEE Personnel Communications, February 1999.

S. Verdu,"On channel capacity per unit cost," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, pp. 1019-30, September 1990.

Santivanez, B.McDonald, I. Stavrakakis, and R.Ramanathan, "On the Scalability of ad hoc routing protocols", in the Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOMM 2002, 2002.

C K Toh, "Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Protocols and Systems", Ninth Impression, Pearson Education in South Asia, 2011.

D. Ayyagari, A. Michail, and A. Ephremides, "A unified approach to scheduling, access control and routing for ad-hoc wireless networks," proceedings of IEEE Veh. Tech. Conference, pp. 380-4, May 2000.

De Rango F, Gerla M, Marano S (2006), "A Scalable Routing Scheme with Group Motion Support in Large and Dense Wireless Ad Hoc Networks", Elsevier Computers and Electrical Engineering Journal, Vol.32, Issue 1-3, May 2006, pp-224-240.

Stojmenovic I and Lin X, "Power aware localized routing in Wireless Networks", in the proceedings of the IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, Cancun, Mexico, May 2000, pp-371-376.

J. Rabaey, J. Ammer, J.L.da Silva, Jr., and D. Roundy, "PicoRadio supports ad hoc ultra-low power wireless networking," IEEE Computer, pp. 42-8, July 2000.

Kim D, Garcia-Luna-Aceves J, Obraczka K, Cano J.C & Manzoni P (2003), "Routing Mechanisms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks based on the Energy Drain Rate", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol.2, No.2.2003, pp-161-173.

C Yu, B Lee and HY Youn (2003), "Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", research supported by Cleveland State University, Cleveland.

J. Chang I-H, Tassiulas L, "Energy Conserving Routing in Wireless Ad hoc Networks", Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE Infocom 2000) 2000; pp.22-31.

Jones CE, Sivalingam KM, Agrawal P and Chen JC, "A Survey of Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless Networks" Wireless Networks 2001; 7(4): 343-358.

S. Banerjee and A Mishra, "Minimum energy paths for reliable communication in multi-hop wireless networks", Proceedings of ACM Mobihoc 2002, Vol.1, pp.146-156, Laussane, Switzerland.

P. Krishna, N.H.Vaidya, M.Chattergee, and K.Pradhan, "A cluster based approach for routing in dynamic networks", ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, Vol.27, No.2, pp.49-64, April 1997.

Iwata, C-C. Chiang, G.Pei, M.Gerla, and T.W Chen, "Scalable Routing Strategies for Ad hoc Wireless Networks", IEEE JSAC, August 1999, Vol.17, No.8, pp.1369-79.

O.K. Tonguz and G.Ferrari, "Is the number of neighbours in ad-hoc wireless networks a good indicator of Connectivity?" in Proceedings of International Zurich Seminar on Communications (IZS): Access-Transmission-Networking, Zurich, Switzerland, February 2004, pp.40-43.

Narayanaswamy S, Kawadia V, Sreenivas RS, Kumar PR, "Power Control in Ad-Hoc Networks: Theory, Architecture, Algorithm and Implementation of the COMPOW Protocol," Proceedings of European Wireless 2002.

D P Agrawal and Quin-An Zeng, "Introduction to Wireless and Mobile Systems," Second Edition", Cengage Publications, 2011, pp. 304-307.

Kravets R., Krishnan P. "Power Management Techniques for Mobile Communication," Proc. of ACME/IEEE Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 1998), Dallas, TX, USA, 1998. – P. 157–168.

Jochen H. Schiller, "Mobile Communications", Second Edition, Addision-Wesley, 2003.

V. Mhatre, C. Rosenberg, D. Kofman, R. Mazumdar and N. Shro, "A minimum cost heterogeneous sensor network with a lifetime constraint", Journal of IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 2005, Vol.4 No.1, pp. 4-15.

Barry A. Woodward, "A Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility DREAM," Proceedings of the 4th annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, 1998, pp. 76-84.

B. Karp and H.T Kung, "GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Network," Proceedings of International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, 2000, pp. 243-254.

NAVSTAR GPS Operations, available via WWW at URL:

Tsirigos and Z.J. Hass, "Multipath Routing in the presence of frequent topological changes," IEEE Communication Magazine, pp. 132-8, November 2001.

Y. Xu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, "Geography-informed Energy Conservation for Ad-hoc Routing," Proceedings of International Conference on Mobile Computing and networking, 2001, pp. 70-84.

Pariza Kamboj and Ashok.K. Sharma, "Energy Efficient Multicast Routing Protocol for MANET with Minimum Control Overhead", International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol.8, No.7, 2010, pp. 1-11.

Mohammed A. Miki, "Energy Efficient Location Aided Routing Protocol for Wireless MANETs," International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security. Vol.4, No.1, 2009, pp-1-9.

Young-Bae Ko and Nitin H. Vaidya, "Location Aided Routing in Mobile Adhoc Networks," Wireless Neworks 6 (2000), pp. 307-321.

Jangsu Lee, Seunghwan Yoo, and Sungchun Kim, "Energy Aware Routing in Location Based ad hoc networks," Proceeding of the 4th International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal processing, ISCCSP 2010, Limassol, Cyprus, 3-5 March 2010.

R Mahajan and R Jagtap, "Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks," International Journal of Science and Modern Engineering.

Wasim El-Hajj, Dionysios Kountanis, Ala Al-Fuqaha and Mohsen Guizani, "A Fuzzy-Based Hierarchical Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Large Scale Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Communication Society, pp.3585-3590.

Sangeeta and Kirti Singh, "Energy Efficient Routing in MANET Using OLSR", International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol.3, No.4, 2011, pp.1418-1421.

Vijayan R Mareeswari V and Samyukta V, "Enhancing Energy Efficiency of Routing Protocol through Cross Layer Interactions in MANET", International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol.5, No.2, 2013, pp.1147-1152.

Woo K, Yu C, Youn HY, Lee B. Non-Blocking, "Localized Routing Algorithm for Balanced Energy Consumption in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proceedings of Int'l Symp. on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS 2001) 2001;117-124.

O. Dengiz, A. Konak, A.E. Smith, "Connectivity Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using particle swarm optimization", Ad hoc Networks 9 (7) (2011) 1312-1326. Doi: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2011.01.010.

N-C Wang, S-W. Wang, "A reliable on-demand routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks with Mobility Prediction", Computer Communications 29 (1) (2005) 123-135. Doi:10.1016/j.comcom.2005.05.003.

L. Ghouti, T.R. Sheltami and K.S Alutaibi, "Mobility Prediction in Mobile Ad hoc networks using Extreme Learning Machines", Procedia Computer Science 19 (2013) 305-312. Doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2013.06.043.

J. Tang, G. Xue, and W. Zhang, "Reliable Routing in mobile ad hoc networks based on mobility prediction, in: Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems," 2004, IEEE International Conference on, 2004, pp. 466-474, doi: 10.1109/MAHSS.2004.1392187.

H. Kaaniche and F. Kamoun, "Mobility Prediction in Wireless Adhoc Networks using Neural Networks", Journal of Telecommunications, Vol. 2 (issue 1), pp. 95-101, April 2010.

S.Y. Wang, J.Y. Liu, C-C. Wang and M-Y Kao, "Signal strength based routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks," Advanced Information Networking Applications, 2005. AINA'05, 19th International Conference on, Vol.2, pp. 17-20, doi: 10.1109/AINA.2005.311.

J. Park, S. Moh and I. Chung, "A multipath AODV Routing Protocol in Mobile Adhoc Networks with SINR based route selection", Wireless Communication Systems, 2008. ISWCS'08, IEEE International Symposium, pp. 682-686, 21-24 Oct.2008. doi: 10.1109/ISWCS.2008.4726143.

Shilpa Bade, Meeta Kumar and Pooja Kamat, "A Reactive Energy-Alert Algorithm for MANET and Its Impact on Node Energy Consumption", International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol.71, No.18, 2013, pp.1-6.

T.Sukumar, "Energy Efficient Multicast Routing Protocol for MANET", International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, Vol.1, Issue 1, 2010, pp.65-74.

Shipra Gautam and Rakesh Kumar, "Modified Energy Saving DSR Protocol for MANETs", International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering, Vol.1, No.4, 2012, pp.1982-1992.

Al-Fedaghi, S., Al Zanaidi, D., Flow-based scenarios in mobile communication systems and networks, (2013) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 3 (2), pp. 131-139.

Mazinani, S.M., Yaghmaee, M.H., Tashtarian, F., Honary, M.T., Chitizadeh, J., On global clustering algorithm: Layer-oriented approach for first/last node dying applications inwireless sensor networks, (2012) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 2 (5), pp. 328-339.

Alla, S.B., Ezzati, A., A QoS-guaranteed coverage and connectivity preservation routing protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, (2012) International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), 2 (6), pp. 363-371.

Shivaprakasha, K.S., Kulkarni, M., Energy efficient routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: A survey, (2011) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 6 (6), pp. 929-943.

Kumar, J., Kulkarni, M., Gupta, D., Performance comparison of MANET routing protocols, (2010) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 5 (1), pp. 1-5.

Sengan, S., Chethur Pandian, S., An efficient agent-based intrusion detection system for detecting malicious nodes in MANET routing, (2012) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 7 (6), pp. 3037-3041.

Jiang, H., Zhang, S., Shao, G., Group mobility judge based on node's neighbors matrix in clustering MANET, (2012) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 7 (6), pp. 2886-2890.

Priyadarsini, S., Umashankar, S., TSRD-RL algorithm based secured route discovery for MANET with improved route lifetime, (2012) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 7 (2), pp. 499-504.

Amnai, M., Fakhri, Y., Abouchabaka, J., Adaptive fuzzy mobility for delay and throughput sensitive traffic in Ad Hoc networks, (2012) International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 7 (3), pp. 965-971.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize