Pressure Effects on G-Quadruplex Structures Stabilized by Two Different Counter-Ions

E. Jr. Baldassarri(1*), M. G. Ortore(2), C. Ferrero(3), S. Finet(4), F. Spinozzi(5), P. Mariani(6)

(1) Marche Polytechnic University, S.A.I.F.E.T. Department, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona, 60131, Italy, Italy
(2) Marche Polytechnic University, S.A.I.F.E.T. Department, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona, 60131, Italy, Italy
(3) European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043, Grenoble, Cedex (France), France
(4) European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043, Grenoble, Cedex (France), France
(5) Marche Polytechnic University, S.A.I.F.E.T. Department, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona, 60131, Italy, Italy
(6) Marche Polytechnic University, S.A.I.F.E.T. Department, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona, 60131, Italy, Italy
(*) Corresponding author


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Abstract


It is well known that the formation of G-quadruplex by guanosine derivatives strongly depends on counter-ions. To investigate quadruplex stability in the presence of different counter-ions and in the absence of a covalent axial backbone, high-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on lyotropic phases of guanosine 5’-monophosphate (GMP) in the form of sodium and ammonium salts. As a result, concentration-pressure phase diagrams were obtained in a pressure range from 1 bar to about 2 kbar, and the structural properties of the different phases derived. Interestingly, cholesteric (Ch) and hexagonal (H) columnar phases were found in both GMP salts, but during compression a reverse behavior was detected: in GMP sodium salt, pressure induces a H-Ch phase transition, while in GMP ammonium salt the induced transition is Ch-H. Different counter-ion stabilization, which control quadruplex length and the consequence of lateral interactions, probably explain such observation
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Keywords


G-Quadruplexes; High Pressure X-ray Diffraction; Hexagonal and Cholesteric Phases; Stability and Counter-ion Effects

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