Biodiesel Preparation from Jatropha Seeds by Enzymatic Reactive Reaction and Dimethyl Carbonate

Gizine I. El Diwani(1*), Shadia A. El Rafie(2), Salwa I. Hawash(3), Sohair Hefni(4)

(1) ZCzechoslovakian Academy of Science, Intitute of basic and Theoritical Chemistry and Technology (UTZCHT), Egypt
(2) Institute of Environmental studies and Research M.Sc. Environmental Biological and Natural Science, Egypt
(3) Cairo University., Egypt
(4) Cairo University., Egypt
(*) Corresponding author

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


Biodiesel is a fuel generally consisting of a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) which is used as alternative or in combination with petroleum diesel for its environmental benefits. Biodiesel prepared by enzymatic catalyzed reactive reaction (in–situ extraction and transesterification) has become of much current interest for alternative fuel production. A novel biodiesel-like material was developed by reacting Jatropha curcas grinded seeds with dimethyl carbonate (DMC), which avoided the co-production of glycerol. In the present study three different Lipases, Lipase immobilized from Candida Antrctica, Hog pancreas Lipase and locally prepared lipase from fungal strain source (Asperigillus niger), were screend for the reactive reaction of Jatropha Seeds in (DMC) to produce biodiesel with novel characteristics. The maximum rate of conversion for biodiesel productions were obtained from Lipase immobilized which after eight hours reaction reached 90.1%. Hog pancrease Lipase enzymatic reactive reaction gives 76.26% biodiesel content in eight hours, while fungus lipase produced 72.59 % biodiesel content for the same time reaction. The reusability test indicated that Lipase immobilized has the most stable activity through three cycles but Hog Lipase retained 77.98% of its initial activity through three cycles at the same conditions. The important parameters like reaction temperature, reaction time, enzyme load and effect of reusability of enzymes with and without regeneration were studied. The prepared biodiesel content and purity were studied by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Infrared (IR) spectrum High Perphormance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and colorimetric determinations for triglycerides retained. Valuable antioxidants were obtained through the reaction and their activity was determined. The thermogravimetric analysis was used for studying and comparing the thermal properties of Bio-lipase(s). From the calculated enthalpy the fungal lipase gave the highest heat followed by> Bio-immobilized lipase > Bio-Hog Lipase
Copyright © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Fuel; Immobilized Enzyme; In-Situ; Jatropha; Transesterification

Full Text:



W. Du, W. Li, T Sun, X.Chen, D.Lui.Perspectives for biotechnological production of biodiesel and impacts. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 79: (2008), 331 – 7.

J. Yang, D. Guo, Y. Yan. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel thermal stable and short-chain alcohol tolerant Lipase from Bukholderia cepacia strain G63. J Mol Catal B Enzym 45: (2007), 91-6.

M. Kato, J. Fuchimoto T. Tanino, A. Kondo H Fukuda, H Ueda. Preparation of a whole – Cell biocatalyst of mutated Candia antractica Lipase B (m CALB) by a yeast molecular display system and its practical properties. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 75; (2007), 549 – 55.

C. C. Akoh, S. S. Chang, G.G. Lee, J. J. Shaw, Enzymatic approach to biodiesel production. Agric Food Chem; 55 (2007). 8995 – 9005.

S. V. Ranganathan, S. L. Narasimhan, K. Muthukumar, An overview of enzymatic production of biodiesel, Bioresour Technol. 99; (2008), 3975 – 81.

E. Y. Pank, M. Sato, S. Kojima, Fatty avid methyl ester production using Lipase – immobilized silica particles with different particle sizes and different specific surface areas. Enzyme Micro technol. 39: (2006). 889 – 96.

Af. Hus, F. T. A. Jonesk, W. N. Marmer, Immobilized Lipase –catalyzed production of alkyl esters of restaurant grease as biodiesel, Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 36 (2002) 181 – 6.

[8] M ISO, B Chem, M Eguchi, T Kudo, S. Shrestha, Production of biodiesel feul from triglycerides and alcohol using immobilized lipase. J Mol Catal B Enzym; 16: (2001). 53 – 8.

M. N Clifford, A Nomenclature for phenols with special reference to tea. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 41 (5), (2001), 393 - 395.

R. Mark geni Klass, Siegfried Warwel, Reactive extraction of oilseeds wth dialkyl carbonates. Eur. J. Lipids Sci technol. 103, (2001), 810 – 814.

S. Warwel, M. Rusch gen. Klaas, Perkohlensaurehalbester. German Patent Application 19738442 (3.9.97 / 4.3.99).

M. Ruch gen Klaas, S. Warwel, Chemoenzymatic epoxidation of Alkenes by Dimethyl Carbonate and Hydrogen Peroxide. Organic Letters 1, (1999). 105 – 1026.

G. Fisicaro, G. Gerbaz; Dialkylcarbonates, in Synthetic Lubricants and High Performance Functional Fluids. Ed. R.L. Shabkin, Marcel Dekker, New York (USA) (1993). pp. 229 – 239.

J. Van Gerpen, Biodiesel processing and production, Fuel Process Technol. (2005). 86, 1097 107.

Mc M. Coy, An unlikely impact, Chan Eng News, 83 (Feb. 21): (2005). 19 -20.

N. Hossien, Process for producing biodiesel fuel with reduced viscosity and a cloud point below thirty – two (32) degrees Fahenheit, Patent No. US 6015440 to university of Nebraska.(2000).

K. S. Tyson, DOE analysis of fuels and coproducts from Lipids. Fuel Process Technol 86, (2005). 1127 – 36.

J. M. Renga, F. D. Coms, Novel methods for the preparation of glycerol carbonates esters. Patent No. W09309111 to Henkel Corp(1993).

Y. Li, X. Zhao, Y. Wang. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol, propylene oxide and carbon dioxide over KOH / 4A molecularsieve catalyst. Appl Catal A; 279, (2005) 205 – 8.

F. Daniele, B. Valerio, N. Marcello, F. Franco, Properties of a Potential biofuel obtained from soybean oil by trans methylation with dimethyl carbonate, Fuel 86, (2007) 690 – 697.

M. Notari, F. Rivetti, Use of a mixture of esters of fatty acids as fuel or solvent, Patent No. WO 2004 / 052874 to Polimeri Europa.(2004).

D. W. Jose Frank, C. G. Lenon, T., Van Beek, A., Bwijberg, J. and Sierra Alvarez, R., Degradation and detoxification of soft wood extractives by Sapstain Fungi, Bioresource technology 71: (2001), 18 – 20.

J. Karnetova, J. Matjetu, T. Rezank, P. Prochazka, M. Nonynek, J. Rokos, Estimation of Lipase activity by the diffusion plant method Folia Microbiol, 29: (1984), 346-347.

R. G. Von Tigerstrom, K. Stelmaschuk, The use of tween 20 in a sensitive turbidimetric assay of Lipolytic enzymes. Can. J. Microbiol, 35: (1986), 511-514.

Y. Ota, M. Suzuki, K. Yamada, Lipids and related Sustances inducing the Lipase production by Candida paralipoltica. Agriculture and Biological Chemistry, 32: (1968a), 390 – 391.

R. N Okigbo, C. L. Anuagasi, J. E. Amadi, Advances in selected medicinal and aromatic plants indigenous to Africa. Journal of Medicine Plants Research 3 (2), (2009). 086 – 095.

D. Bandoniene, M. Markovic, Pfannhauser, W. Venskutonis, D. Gruzdiene, Detection and activity evaluationof radical scavenging compounds by using DPPH free radical and on-line HPLC –DPPH methods, Eur.Food.Res. Tecnol., 214: (2002)143-147.

H. Miurak, Kikuzaki, N. Nakatani, Antioxdant activity of chemical compounds from Sage (Salvia Officinalis L.) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) measured by the oil stability index method. J. Agricu. Food Chem., 50: (2002).1845-1851.

B. Tepe, M. Sokmen, H. A Akpulat, A. Sokmen. Screening of theantioxidant potentials of sise Salvia species from Turkey. Food Chem., 95: (2006), 200-204.

B. Matthaus, Antioxidant activity of of extracts obtained from residues of different oil seeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, (2002), 3444-3452.

S. Shahida, T. M Perveen Qaisrani., S Bhutta, S. H. M. Riffat Perveen, Naqvi HPLC Analysis of Cotton Phenols and their Contribution in Bollworn, Resistance 1 (7): (2001). 587-590.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2019 Praise Worthy Prize