Biodiesel Preparation from Jatropha Seeds by Enzymatic Reactive Reaction and Dimethyl Carbonate
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Biodiesel is a fuel generally consisting of a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) which is used as alternative or in combination with petroleum diesel for its environmental benefits. Biodiesel prepared by enzymatic catalyzed reactive reaction (in–situ extraction and transesterification) has become of much current interest for alternative fuel production. A novel biodiesel-like material was developed by reacting Jatropha curcas grinded seeds with dimethyl carbonate (DMC), which avoided the co-production of glycerol. In the present study three different Lipases, Lipase immobilized from Candida Antrctica, Hog pancreas Lipase and locally prepared lipase from fungal strain source (Asperigillus niger), were screend for the reactive reaction of Jatropha Seeds in (DMC) to produce biodiesel with novel characteristics. The maximum rate of conversion for biodiesel productions were obtained from Lipase immobilized which after eight hours reaction reached 90.1%. Hog pancrease Lipase enzymatic reactive reaction gives 76.26% biodiesel content in eight hours, while fungus lipase produced 72.59 % biodiesel content for the same time reaction. The reusability test indicated that Lipase immobilized has the most stable activity through three cycles but Hog Lipase retained 77.98% of its initial activity through three cycles at the same conditions. The important parameters like reaction temperature, reaction time, enzyme load and effect of reusability of enzymes with and without regeneration were studied. The prepared biodiesel content and purity were studied by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Infrared (IR) spectrum High Perphormance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and colorimetric determinations for triglycerides retained. Valuable antioxidants were obtained through the reaction and their activity was determined. The thermogravimetric analysis was used for studying and comparing the thermal properties of Bio-lipase(s). From the calculated enthalpy the fungal lipase gave the highest heat followed by> Bio-immobilized lipase > Bio-Hog Lipase
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