Atmospheric Pollution: Global Warming and a Possible Use of Bio-Fuels in a Wide Scale
(*) Corresponding author
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)
Atmospheric Pollution is one of the most concerning problems faced by the modern society. The anomalous concentration of certain gaseous species can occasion dangerous environmental consequences, such as the degeneration of air quality, acid rain, photochemical smog, ozone layer depletion, health diseases and the global warming. Transport sector is responsible for a great part of the damaging pollutant emitted by anthropogenic sources, what justifies a serious preoccupation in the monitoring of gases emitted in the exhaust of automotive vehicles. In this paper, we discuss the main impacts of the atmospheric pollution, especially the global warming, on the environment and on the human society. We still analyze how biofuels can help to mitigate the global warming, beyond boosting Brazilian development. Finally, we present experimental data of pollutant gases emitted in the exhaust of diesel, natural gas, gasoline and alcohol powered vehicles. The measurements were made using photoacoustic and electrochemical techniques
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.
W. Steffen et al, Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet under Pressure (Springer - Verlag). New York York, (2003).
Emilio Moran, People and Nature: an introduction to Human Ecological Relations, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford (2006).
IPCC, Report of Working Group I, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Paris, February (2007).
IPCC, Report of Working Group III, Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change, Bangkok, May (2007).
Malte Meinshausen et al, Greehouse – Gas Emission Targets for Limiting Global Warning to 2 o C., Nature, 458 (2009).
Myles R. Allen, David j. Frame, Cris Huntingford, Chris D. Jones, Jason A. Lowe Malte Meinshausen, Nicoli Meinshausen., Warning Caused by Cumulative Carbon Emissions Towards the Trillionth tonne, Nature, Vol. 458, 30 April ( 2009).
James Hansen et al, Target atmosphere CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim, The Open Atmospheric Science journal, 2, 217-231, (2008).
J. Hansen, Makiko, Greenhouse gas growth rates, PNAS, vol.101, no. 46 (2004).
Kevin E. Trenberth, Dennis J. Shea, Atlantic hurricanes and natural variability in 2005, Geophysical Research Letter, Vol. 33, 1029 (2006).
Nathan P. et al, Attribution of polar warming to human influence Nature Geoscience, Vol. 1 (2008).
Mark Siddall, Thomas F. Stocker, Peter U. Clark, Constrains on future sea-level from past sea-level change, Nature Geoscience, Vol. 2 (2009).
B. D. Sander et al, Forced and unforced ocean temperature changes in Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclogenesis regions, PNAS, vol. 103, no. 38 (2006).
Kerry Emanuel, Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature, Vol. 436/4 (2005).
Alexandre B. Peza, Iam Simmonds, The first South Atlantic hurricane: Unprecedented blocking, how shear and climate change, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, Li 5712, (2005).
Marco Janssen, Use of complex adaptive systems for modeling global Change, Ecosystems, 1, 457-463 (1998).
W. A. Kurz et al, Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change, Nature, Vol. 452, (2008).
Charles H. Greene, Bruce C. Monger, Louise P. McGarry, Some like it cold, northern shrimp stocks thrive when climatic conditions lead to cold bottom waters. Science, Vol. 324, (2009).
Linda Munson et al, Climate extremes promote fatal co-infections during canine distemper epidemic in African Lions, Plos One, V. 3, n. 6, June (2008).
J. Lenoir et al, A significant upward shift in plant species optimum elevation during the 20 th century, Science, Vol. 320, (2008).
Cynthia Rosenzweig et al, Attributing physical and biological impacts to antropogenic climate change, Nature, Vol 453, (2008).
]Susan Solomon et al, Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions, PNAS, Vol. 106, no. 6, (2009).
Trenberth E. K., Moore B., Karl T. R., Nobre C., Monitoring and Prediction of The Earth’s Climate: A Future Perspective, Journal of Climate Special Sections, Vol. 19 (2006).
Michael E. Mann, Raymond S. Bradley, Malcolm K. Hughest, Global temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries. Nature, Vol. 392, (1998).
J. Hansen, L. Nazarenko, Soot Climate Forcing via snow and ice albedos, PNAS, vol. 101, no. 2 (2004).
James Hansen et al, Earth’s Imbalance: Confirmation and implications, Science, Vol. 308 (2005).
Stern Review : The Economics of Climate Change, 2006 UK.
IPCC, Report of Working Group II, Climate Change 2007: Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Bruxelas, April (2007).
Shoibal Chakravarty, Ananth C. Heleen, C. Stephen, P., Robert S., Massino T., Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters, PNAS, 106, p. 11884 -11888,(2009).
J. Goldemberg , The promise of clean energy, Energy Policy, 34, 2185-2190, (2006)
J. Goldemberg, Biomass and Energy, Qui. Nova, Vol. 32, No. 3, 582-587, (2009).
Ricardo Abramovay, Biofuels: The energy of controversy . Editora Senac, São Paulo (2009).
J. Goldemberg, S. T. Coelho, P. Guardabassi, The sustainability production from sugarcane. Energy Policy 36, 2086-2097, (2008).
J. Goldemberg, Review, The Brazilian biofuels industry, Biotechnology for Biofuels , 1:6, (2008).
I. C. Macedo, J. E. A. Seabra, J. E. A. R., Green house gases emissions in the production and use of ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil :The 2005/2006 averages and a prediction for 2020. Biomass and Bionergy, v.32, n.7; p. 582-595; (2008).
M. N. Camargo, Motores de Combustão Interna, Ciência e Ambiente, Vol. 37, 105-138, (2008).
The International Council for Science (ICSU), Biofuels: Environmental consequence & implications of Changing Land Use, Executive Sumary, Rapid Assessment on Biofuels and the Environment: Overview and Key Findings, Cornell University, September (2008).
P. J. Crutzen, A. R. Mosier, K. A. Smith, W. Winiwarter, N2O realease from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 7, 11191-11205, (2007).
L. Barton, R. Kiese, D. Gatter, K. Butterbach, R. Buck, C. Hink, D. Murphy, Nitrous Oxide emissions from cropped soil in a semi-arid climate. Global Change Biology, 14, 177-192, (2008).
J. N. Galloway et al., Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: recent trends, questions, and potencial solutions, Science, Vol 30, 16 (2008).
T. Searchinger et al, Use of U. S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change. Science, vol. 319, February (2008).
H. J. Hellebrand, V. Scholz, J. Kern, Fertiliser induced nitrous oxide emissions during energy crop cultivation on loany sand soils. Atmosferic Environmental 42, 8403-8411, (2008).
L. D. Martins, M. F. Andrade, Emissions Scenario Assessment of gasohol reformulation proposals and ethanol use in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. The Open Atmospheric Science Journal, 2, 166-175, (2008).
M. Nagele, M. W. Sigrist. Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for trace-gas sensing. Appl. Phys. B 70, 895-901 (2000).
A. Miklos, P. Hess. Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology. Ver. Sci Instrum., Vol. 72, n. 4 (2001).
M. B. Filho, M. G. da Silva, M. S. Sthel, D. U. Schramm, H. Vargas, A. Miklos, P. Hess, Ammonia detection by using quantum-cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy. Applied Optics 45(20): p. 4966-4971 (2006).
M. S. Sthel, D. U. Schramm, R. T. Faria Jr., M. P. P. Castro, L. O. Carneiro, W. S. Ribeiro, H. Vargas. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based Analysis of Gas Samples in a Bus Station. J. Phys. IV, France, 125, p. 881-883 (2005).
D. U. Schramm, M. S. Sthel, M. G. da Silva, L. O. Carneiro, A. J. S Junior, H. Vargas, Application of the Laser Photoacoustic Spectroscopy on the Analysis of Gas Samples Emitted by Diesel Engines. Inf. Pys. Technol ,44, p 263-269, (2003).
S. L. Hekkert, Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in Trace Gas monitoring. Enciclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2000).
A. J. Bard, L. R. Falkner, Electrochemical methods: Fundamentals and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, (2001).
J. Janata, M. Josowics, Conducting polymers in eletronic chemical sensors. Nature Materials, 2, 19-24 (2003).
Chou, Jack, Hazardous gas monitor: a pratical guide to selections, operation and applications. Mack Graw-Hill Book Company. New York: 2000.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Please send any question about this web site to firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize