Integration of Gum and Wood Naval Stores in Bio-Turpentine Refineries
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The paper provides information on the production methods used in the pine turpentine industry, the availability of the pine turpentine on the world market and an estimate on the capacity for production growth. This estimate is based on the existing figures for softwood production around the world and does not take into account the tremendous capacity for expansion, if the pine turpentine finds its market place as a transport fuel. Next, the paper provides an overview of the main concepts for development of bio-refineries, focussing on the bio-oil and bio-char concepts. The concept of bio-turpentine refinery that is introduced in this paper applies the basic organising principles of the bio refineries to the needs of the pine turpentine industry. The final part of the paper is a discussion on the technical, economic and ethical advantages of the pine turpentine as a transport fuel over an important contestant on the bio-fuel market – the biodiesel
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