Effects of Transesterification Parameters on the Biodiesel Produced from Crude Groundnut Oil

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


This study focused on optimization of biodiesel yield from crude groundnut oil through a two-stage transesterification process by investigating the effect of reaction parameters on the yield using a 24 experimental factorial design. The crude groundnut oil was pretreated to remove water and reduce its FFA by esterification using sulphuric acid and ethanol followed by transesterification using sodium hydroxide and ethanol. The optimum ethyl ester (biodiesel) yield of 99% was obtained at optimum conditions of 1:6 wt/wt oil to ethanol molar ratio, reaction temperature of 60oC, catalyst concentration of 1.0 wt% and reaction time of 90 minutes. The biodiesel produced was characterized for fuel properties that include kinetic viscosity, cetane number, flash point etc. and the determined values were found to be within the acceptable standard as recommended by the ASTM D 6751. Statistical analysis of the 24 factorial experimental results was conducted using ANOVA, it was evidently proved that the four (4) reaction parameters i.e. molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and time had significant effects on the yield of the ethyl ester with their percentage contribution and effects being 29.6667% and 4.35, 6.27121% and -2, 38.2213% and 4.9375, 3.12801% and 3.12801 respectively. Also, it was proved that interaction between the reactions parameters had significant effect on the ethyl ester yield except the interaction between molar ratio-catalyst concentration-reaction time whose p-value was below the 95% confident level. A first degree linear mathematical model was developed and it was seen to completely describe the system and the model was further used to develop software that predicts biodiesel yield from crude groundnut oil using two-step transesterification process with ethanol and KOH as the catalyst.
Copyright © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Crude Groundnut Oil; Biodiesel; Transesterification; Characterization and Statistical Analysis

Full Text:



J.C Pasqualino, D Montane and J. Salvado, Synergic Effects of Biodiesel in the Biodegradability of Fossil-Derived Fuels. J. Biomass Bioenergy 30(2) (2006) 874–879.

O.J Sanchez and C.A Cardona, Trends in Biotechnical Production of Ethanol Fuel from Different Feedstocks, J. Bioresour. Technol 37(2) (2008) 133−140

M Balat and H Balat, (2009) Recent Trends in Global Production and Utilization of Bioethanol Fuel. J. Applied Energy Journal, 86 (2009) 2273-2282.

U.S Department of Agriculture Report (2009), Data on Peanut oil.

U.S. Department of Energy: Office of Fossil Energy.

O.J Alamu, Effect of Ethanol-Palm Kernel Oil Ratio on Alkali-Catalyzed Biodiesel Yield, Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 8(2) (2007) 212-219.

National Biodiesel Board Report (2006). Biodiesel Quality Specifications.

A Munack, J Krahl, K Baum, U Hackbarth, H.E Jeberien, C. Schutt, O. Schroder, N Walter, N, J Bunger, M.M Muller and A. Weigel, Gaseous Compounds, Ozone Precursors, Particle Number and Particle Size Distributions, and Mutagenic Effects Due to Biodiesel. J. Trans. ASAE 44(3) (2001) 179–191.

S. Saka and D. Kusdiana, D, Biodiesel Fuel from Rapeseed Oil as Prepared in Supercritical Methanol. J. Fuel Journal, 80(2) (2001) 225-231.

B.C Arjun,B, S.T Martin, M.B Suzanne, W. Chris and M Rafiqul Islam, (2008).Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production. J. Molecular Science 9(2) (2008) 169-180.

L.C Meher, V.S Dharmagadda and S.N Naik, Optimization of Alkali-catalyzed Transesterification of Pongamia pinnata Oil for Production of Biodiesel, J. Bioresour Technol, 97(5)(2006) 1392-1397.

A.K Agarwal and L.M Das. L.M. (2001). Biodiesel development and characterization for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. J. Engineering Gas Turbines Power 123 (2001) 440-447.

S. Alan, Biofuel Production: Application and Development. J. Bioresource Energy Journal, 97(6) (2009) 516−525.

G.O Abulu, G.O, An Economic Analysis of Groundnut Production in Northern Nigeria. In: Proceedings of the National Seminar on Groundnut Production, Kano, Nigeria (1978) 83-90.

O.D Adeniyi, A.S Kovo, A.S, A.S Abdulkareem and C. Chukwudozie, Ethanol Fuel Production from Cassava as a Substitute for Gasoline. J. Dispersion and Technology 28 (2007) 501-504.

A.S Abdulkareem, H Uthman, A.S Afolabi and O.L Awonebe O.L (2011). Extraction and Optimization of Oil from Moringa Oleifera Seed as an Alternative Feedstock for the production of Biodeisel. Majid N, Mostafa K, editors. Sustainable Growth and Application in Renewable Energy Sources. InTech. 243-268.

A.S Sambo (2007). Renewable Energy Development in Nigeria: A Situation Report. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Renewable Energy Development in Africa, July 30th to August 1st, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 1−39.

N L Okoro, V B Sedoo, R E Nwamaka, Y B Makama (2011): Synthesis, Calorimetric and Viscometric Study of Groundnut oil Biodiesel and Blends. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 1(3) (2001).

N. Yusuf and M.Sirajo, M. (2009). An Experimental Study of Biodiesel Synthesis from Groundnut Oil, Aus. J. Applied Sci 3 1623−1629.

V.J Gerpen, Biodiesel Processing and Production. J. Fuel Processing Technology, 86(10) (2004) 1097–1107.

David, P.E. (2004). Biodiesel: A primer, Farm Energy Technical 1−14.

C.N Ibeto, A.U Ofoefule and H C Ezeugwu, Fuel Quality Assessment of Biodiesel Produced from Groundnut Oil (Arachis hypogea) and its Blend with Petroleum diesel, American Journal of Food Technology, 6(9) (2011) 798-803.

AOCS Oil Specifications: Report of the Oil Characteristic Committee, September 1941.

K Othmer. Castor Oil: Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.

B Freedman, E H Pryde and T L Mounts, Variables Affecting the Yields of Fatty Esters from Transesterified Vegetable Oils, JAOCS 61(4) (1984) 1638– 1643.

R D Abigor, P O Uadia, T A Foglia, M J Haas, J E Okpefa and J U Obibuzor. Lipase-Catalyzed Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Nigerian Lauric Oils, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 28(3) (2000) 979–981.

M P Dorado, E Ballesteros, F J Lopez and M Mittelbach (2004). Optimization of Alkali-Catalyzed Transesterification of Brassica carinata Oil for Biodiesel Production. J. Energy Fuel, 18(2) (2004) 77−83.

T W Ryan, L G Dodge and T J Callahan, (1984). The Effects of Vegetable Oil Properties on Injection and Combustion in Two Different Diesel Engines, JAOCS 61(4) (2004) 1610.

A Galadima, Z N Garba and B M Ibrahim, Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Transesterification of Groundnut Oil for Synthesizing Methyl Biodiesel. International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2(3) (2008) 138-144.

M Ahmmad, K Ullah, M A Khan, M Zafari, M Tariq, S Ali and S Sultana (2011). Physico chemical analysis of hemp biodiesel: A Promising non edible new sources for bioenergy. J. Energy Sources, Part A. 33 (2011) 1365-1374.

R Fillières, B Benjelloun-Mlayah, and M Delmas, Ethanolysis of Rapeseed Oil: Quantitation of Ethyl Esters, Mono-, Di-, and Triglycerides and Glycerol by High Performance Size-Exclusion Chromatography, JAOCS, 72(4) (1995) 427−432.

K Krisnangkura and R Simamaharnnop, (1992). Continuous Transmethylation of Palm Oil in an Organic Solvent, JAOCS, 69(2) (1992) 166-169.

Y Tanaka, A Okabe and S Ando, S. (1998). Method for the Preparation of a, Lower Alkyl Ester of Fatty Acids, US Patent 4, 303−590.

M J Haas, A J McAloon, W C Yee and T A Foglia, A Process Model to Estimate Biodiesel Production Costs. J. Bioresource Technology, 97(4) (2006) 671–678.

F Ma and M A Hanna, M.A Biodiesel Production: A Review, Bioresource Technology, 70(1) (1999) 1–15.

Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report (2010). Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy.

A V Tomasevic and S S Siler-Marinkovic, (2003). Methanolysis of Used Frying Oil. J Fuel Process Technol, 81(4) (2003) 1−6.

J U Obibuzor, R D Abigor and D A Okiy, Recovery of Oil via Acid-Catalyzed Transesterification. JAOCS, 80(1) (2003) 77−80.

DG Boocock, S K Konar, V Mao, C Lee and S Buligan, Fast Formation of High Purity Methyl Esters from Vegetable Oils. JAOCS, 75(12) (1998) 1167– 1172.

M S Graboski and R L McCormick (1998). Combustion of Fat and Vegetable Oil Derived Fuels in Diesel Engines. J. Prog. Energy Combust Sci., 24(3): 125−164.

J Box and W Wilson, Central Composite Designs, Statistical Society, 111(1) (1995) 1–35.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize