Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Design Model for Electric Environmental Control System in Aircraft Conceptual and Preliminary Design

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



In present decades, the need for a more efficient air transport system is driving towards more electric aircraft subsystems. Electrified subsystems offer the opportunity to optimize the operational performance of systems by reducing the power required by the propulsion system therefore, reducing the fuel burnt. A considerable advantage can be obtained by electrifying the environmental control system which is the most power demanding aircraft subsystem. The paper presents a simplified model to estimate the main performances of the conventional and electrified environmental control system during the aircraft conceptual and preliminary design phases. Different air cycle machine architectures can be designed. The model is divided in two main modules. The first is dedicated to the estimation of the aircraft thermal loads including the effect of solar radiation, the conduction of external air, the presence of passengers and the avionic systems. With the main result of estimating the cabin airflow required to control the temperature and the air quality within the aircraft’s mission profile. The second module of the model designs all major components of the air conditioning pack including the dedicated compressors of the electrified environmental control system. The model requires basic input data that can be easily estimated during the early stages of aircraft design. The model is calibrated using the available data of a conventional system and then applied to the electrified one. The results show the increased efficiency of the electrified system that results from optimizing both pneumatic power generation and the air cycle machine.
Copyright © 2023 The Authors - Published by Praise Worthy Prize under the CC BY-NC-ND license.


Air Cycle Machine; Cabin Thermal Loads; Environmental Control System; More Electric Aircraft; Systems Electrification

Full Text:



M. J. Cronin, All-Electric vs Conventional Aircraft: The Production/Operational Aspects, Journal of Aircraft, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 481-486, 1983.

I. Moir and A. Seabridge, Aircraft Systems: Mechanical, electrical, and avionics subsystems integration, Third ed., England: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.

P. Della Vecchia, L. Stingo, F. Nicolosi, A. De Marco, G. Cerino, P. D. Ciampa, P. S. Prakasha, M. Fioriti, M. Zhang, A. Mirzoyan, B. Aigner and D. Charbonnier, Advanced turboprop multidisciplinary design and optimization within AGILE project, in 2018 Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 2018.

L. Faleiro, J. Herzog, B. Schievelbusch and T. & Seung, Integrated equipment systems for a more electric aircraft-hydraulics and pneumatics, in Proceedings of 24th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, 2004.

R. I. Jones, The more electric aircraft-assessing the benefits, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, vol. 216, no. 5, pp. 259-269, 2002.

M. Fioriti, L. Boggero, S. Corpino, P. S. Prakasha, P. D. Ciampa and B. Nagel, The Effect of Sub-systems Design Parameters on Preliminary Aircraft Design in a Multidisciplinary Design Environment, Transportation Research Procedia, vol. 29, pp. 135-145, 2018.

J. Kurzke, Gas turbine cycle design methodology: a comparison of parameter variation with numerical optimization, Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 6-11, 1999.

L. Lupelli and T. Geis, A study on the integration of the IP Power Offtake system within the Trent 1000 turbofan engine. Master Thesis., 2012.

M. Sinnet, 787 No-Bleed Systems: Saving Fuel and Enhancing Operational Efficiencies, Aero Quarterly QTR_04 | 07, pp. 06-11, 2007.

Lisovin, I., Ekimov, S., Ismagilov, F., Vavilov, V., Gusakov, D., Bekuzin, V., Miniyarov, A., Development of a 250 kW Electric Power Generation System for a More Electric Aircraft, (2021) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 16 (4), pp. 316-327.

P. Wheeler and S. Bozhko, The More Electric Aircraft: Technology and challenges, IEEE Electrification Magazine, vol. 2, pp. 6-12, 2014.

Ismagilov, F., Zherebtsov, A., Vavilov, V., Sayakhov, I., Design and Experimental Investigation of BLDC Motor for Aircraft Electromechanical Actuator, (2020) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 13 (1), pp. 10-15.

A. Abdel-Hafez, Power Generation and Distribution System for a More Electric Aircraft - A review, Dr. Ramesh Agarwal, ISBN: 978-953-51-0150-5, Intech, 2012, pp. 289-308.

D. van den Bossche, The A380 fligh control electrohydrostatic actautors, achievements and lessons learnt, in ICAS, Hamburg, 2006.

I. Berlowitz, All/More Electric Aircraft Engine & Airframe Systems Implementation, in The 9th Israeli Symposium on Jet Engines and Gas Turbines, 2010.

I. Jennions, F. Ali, M. Esperon Miguez and I. Camacho Escobar, Simulation of an Aircraft Environmental Control System, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 172, no. 114925, pp. 1-36, 2020.

S. H. Chowdhury, F. Ali and I. K. Jennions, A review of aircraft environmental control system simulation and diagnostics, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, pp. 1-15, 2023.

D. P. Linares, Modeling and Simulation of an Aircraft Environmental Control System, Doctoral dissertation, École Polytechnique de Montréal, 2016.

D. Bender, Exergy-Based Analysis of Aircraft Environmental Control Systems - Integration into Model-Based Design and Potential for Aircraft System Evaluation, in ECOS 2016 - The 29th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, 2016.

M. Kwiatkowski, Simulation of Components from the Environmental Control System, Project report - HAW Hamburg, Hamburg, 2006.

Orozco, W., Acuña, N., Orjuela Abril, S., CFD Study of the Heat Exchange Process in an Energy Recovery System Applied to Low Displacement Diesel Engines, (2020) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 13 (4), pp. 243-251.

J. Vargas and A. Bejan, Thermodynamic optimization of finned crossflow heat exchangers for aircraft environmental control systems, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 657-665, 2001.

Y. Yang, S. Chen, C. Sheng, H. Xie, G. Luo and Y. Hou, Study on coupling performance of turbo-cooler in aircraft environmental control system, Energy, vol. 224, no. 120029, pp. 1-13, 2021.

Alvarenga, M., Andrade, C., Zaparoli, E., A Thermodynamic Analysis of Three and Four-Wheel Air Cycle Machines for Aeronautical Applications, (2015) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 9 (2), pp. 190-200.

T. Planès, S. Delbecq, V. Pommier-Budinger and E. Bénard, Modeling and Design Optimization of an Electric Environmental Control System for Commercial Passenger Aircraft, Aerospace, vol. 10, no. 3, p. 260, 2023.

L. Patricelli, Innovative solutions for the thermal control of aeronautic vehicles, Master thesis, 2013.

Y. Han, C. Yang, X. Zhang and X. Yuan, Influences of Different Architectures on the Thermodynamic Performance and Network Structure of Aircraft Environmental Control System, Entropy, vol. 23, no. 7, 2021.

Z. Duan, H. Sun, C. Wu and H. Hu, Multi-objective optimization of the aircraft environment control system based on component-level parameter decomposition, Energy, vol. 245, no. 123330, pp. 1-15, 2022.

R. Vega Diaz, Analysis of an electric environmental control system to reduce the energy consumption of fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft, Master thesis, Cranfield, 2011.

ASHRAE, Aircraft, in Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning: analysis and design, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 2015.

D. W. Green and R. H. Perry, Perry's chemical engineers'handbook, vol. 2, McGraw-Hill, 2008, pp. 2-155.

SAE-AIR-1168/3, Aerothermodynamic Systems Engineering and Design, SAE aerospace, 2011.

F. P. Incropera and D. P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 3rd ed., New York: Wiley, 1990, pp. 658-660.

SAE-AIR-1168/6, Characteristics of Equipment Components, Equipment Cooling System Design, and Temperature Control System Design, SAE International, 2004.

Liebherr-Aerospace, A319/A320/A321 Environmental Control System - Familiarization Training, Liebherr-Aerospace, 2004.

M. A. Dornheim, Electric cabin, Aviation week and space technology, pp. 47-49, 28 March 2005.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize