Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Calibration of the Precision Approach Path Indicator System

Carlos Eduardo Uc Ríos(1), Pedro Lopez Teruel(2*)

(1) University of Campeche, Mexico
(2) University of Campeche, Mexico
(*) Corresponding author



Use of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) has increased exponentially due to its flexibility, maneuverability and reduced costs. Technological advances such as improvement of stabilization systems, GPS (Global Position System) and first-person view cameras have enabled the introduction of these platforms into different sectors. However, current regulations prohibit autonomous flights at airport environment, which leaves many business opportunities non-explored. Since approach is one of the most difficult flight phases, this paper presents an onboard autonomous algorithm solution for visual approaches called AVVAS (Autonomous Verification for Visual Approach System). AVVAS reports the current calibration status and the necessary calibration to be reached for PAPI (Precision Approach Path Indicator) system. To optimize and validate the algorithm, a simulation is performed on a FFS (Full Flight Simulator). This algorithm provides the following benefits: reduction of maintenance costs and reduction of the calibration time increasing the runway availability.
Copyright © 2021 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


UAV; Drone; Calibration; PAPI; Airport

Full Text:



ICAO, Annex 14 - Aerodromes - Volume I - Aerodromes Design and Operations, eighth ed. (Chicago 2018).

Bas, J. Uses and applications of drones in the future. ALTRANTECH360: Your community of INNOVATION and TECHNOLOGY, (Altran S.A. 2016).

Becerra, V. Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, (University of Portsmouth, 2016).

Loubar, H., Boushaki, R., Aouati, A., Bouanzoul, M., Sliding Mode Controller for Linear and Nonlinear Trajectory Tracking of a Quadrotor, (2020) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 13 (3), pp. 128-138.

N. Xuan-Mung, S. K. Hong, Improved Altitude Control Algorithm for Quadcopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, (2019), Applied Science, Vol. 9 (Issue 10).

Y. Alaiwi, A. Mutlu, Modelling, Simulation and implementation of Autonomous Unmanned Quadrotor, International Scientific Journal "Machines. Technologies. Materials", Vol. 12(Issue 8):320-325, 2018.

Di Vito, V. et al. UAV free path safe DGPS/AHRS approach and landing system with dynamic and performance constraints, (Conference: UAV 2007 International Conference, Exhibition and Workshop, Paris, 2007)

Alnuaimi, M., Perhinschi, M., Al-Sinbol, G., Immunity-Based Framework for Autonomous Flight in GNSS-Denied Environment, (2019) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 12 (6), pp. 239-249.

Tezza, D. L., Denis-Caprio, D., Andujar, M. (2020). Let's Fly! An Analysis of Flying FPV Drones through an Online Survey (Creative Commons, Honouloulu, 2020).

Fas-Millán, M., Pastor Llorens, E., Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications Display oriented to multiple Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems pilots, (2019) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 12 (1), pp. 1-11.

Markus Funk. 2018. Human-drone interaction: let's get ready for flying user interfaces! Interactions 25, 3 (2018), 78-81.

El Gmili, N., Mjahed, M., El Kari, A., Ayad, H., An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO) Approach for Identification and Control of Stable and Unstable Systems, (2017) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 10 (3), pp. 229-239.

Jean-Philippe Condomines, Nonlinear Kalman Filtering for Multi-Sensor Navigation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Elsevier Ltd, 2018).

Kamel, M.; Burri, M.; Siegwart, R. Linear vs Nonlinear MPC for Trajectory Tracking Applied to Rotary Wing Micro Aerial Vehicles. IFAC (2017), 50, 3463-3469.

Feng Y, Zhang C, Baek S, Rawashdeh S, Mohammadi A. Autonomous Landing of a UAV on a Moving Platform Using Model Predictive Control. Drones. 2018; 2(4):34.

Grillo, C., Montano, F., Automatic EKF Tuning for UAS Path Following in Turbulent Air, (2018) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 11 (6), pp. 241-246.

W. Gai, Y. Zhou, M. Zhong, C. Sheng and J. Zhang, Simple Adaptive Control With an Adaptive Anti-Windup Compensator for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Attitude Control, in IEEE Access, vol. 8, (2020) pp. 52323-52332.

J.B. Sharma, Applications of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (CRC Press, 2020).

Iswanto, I., Mujaahid, F., Rohmansyah, R., Ardi Nugraha, T., Shekher, V., Quadrotor Tracking Control Based on Optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller, (2019) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 12 (6), pp. 261-270.

Habib, T., Replacement of In-Orbit Modern Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Estimation Algorithms with Neural Networks, (2021) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 14 (3), pp. 166-172.

Geethapriya. S, N. Duraimurugan, S.P. Chokkalingam, Real-Time Object Detection with Yolo, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) (2019) ISSN: 2249 - 8958, Volume-8, Issue-3S.

Nguyen T., Park EA. Han J., Park DC. Min SYObject Detection Using Scale Invariant Feature Transform. In: Pan JS., Krömer P., Snášel V. (eds) Genetic and Evolutionary Computing. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, (2014) vol 238. Springer, Cham.

Żejmo M., Kowal M., Korbicz J., Monczak R. (2018) Nuclei Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Network and Hough Transform. In: Kościelny J., Syfert M., Sztyber A. (eds) Advanced Solutions in Diagnostics and Fault Tolerant Control. DPS 2017. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 635. Springer, Cham.

Zhou, H., Yuan, Y., Shi, Y.: Object tracking using SIFT features and mean shift. Journal on Computer Vision and Image Understanding (2009) 113(3), 345-352.

CANARD DRONES. Canard Drones - Smart Drones for Smart Airports (Canard S.L., 2018).

Herrera-Rubio, Jorge & Parra-Prada, Sergio. (2019). Experimental prototype for visual support in the calibration of the precision indicator lights of approach slope, for a landing track using a drone (Universidad de Pamplona, 2019).

AESA. Technical instruction for the maintenance of the movement area (AESA pub, 2019).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2021 Praise Worthy Prize