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Adaptive Array Antenna in Ground Station Control System for Massive LEO CubeSat Constellation Tracking

Syazana Basyirah Binti Mohammad Zaki(1*), Mengu Cho(2), Nobuyuki Kaya(3)

(1) Laboratory of Spacecraft Environment Interaction Engineering, Department of Applied Science with Integrated System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan
(2) Laboratory of Spacecraft Environment Interaction Engineering, Department of Applied Science with Integrated System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan
(3) WaveArrays, Inc., Kobe University, Japan
(*) Corresponding author



Since Low Earth Orbit has become a popular orbit to place satellites, CubeSat constellation tracking is challenging. The higher capacity and capability of a new Ground Station tracking system are in demand and this motivates researchers to come out with a solution to mitigate the traditional Ground Station degradation performance. This paper discusses the implementation of the Least Mean Square algorithm to the Adaptive Array Antenna for the Ground Station tracking system application. The simulation results show the main beam pattern’s capability to perform instantaneous tracking and steering towards the targeted CubeSat while suppressing the side lobes towards the other interfering CubeSats when massive CubeSats constellations take place. Planar and circular array antennas are analyzed by setting the optimum weighting factors to be adapted. Three scenarios of CubeSats constellations are simulated. The Adaptive Array Antenna’s performance for each scenario is analyzed based on the beam width characteristics and the Signal-to-Interference Ratio of the beam pattern. The number of CubeSats tracked by the Adaptive Array Antenna and the system’s capability to perform fast tracking as the number of antenna array elements is also discussed in this paper. Finally, solutions to mitigate the Least Mean Square algorithm’s limitation to perform fast tracking when massive interferer CubeSats are nearby are proposed.
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Low Earth Orbit; Ground Station; Least Mean Square; Adaptive Array Antenna; Signal-to-Interference Ratio

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