Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Review of Flight Intersection Joints

Masuram Umakanth(1), Vijayabaskar Narayanamurthy(2*), Srikanth Korla(3)

(1) Research Centre Imarat, Hyderabad & National Institute of Technology, Warangal, India
(2) Research Centre Imarat, Hyderabad, India
(3) National Institute of Technology, Warangal, India, India
(*) Corresponding author


DOI: https://doi.org/10.15866/irease.v14i3.19401

Abstract


Slender flight vehicles such as launch vehicles and missiles are made of several airframe sections which are connected together using an appropriate intersection joint.  These intersection joints help in easy assembly and disassembly of airframe sections for integration, maintenance and operational health checks of configured subsystems within the airframe sections. Several types of intersection joints are commonly adopted in practice and the selection of a particular type depends upon the available volume, geometry, material, size and configuration of the flight airframe sections and the kind of joint stiffness acceptable to the flight. The intersection joints are characterised by the joint compliance and the capability to withstand the flight, transportation and handling loads.  This paper attempts to bring out a comprehensive review of these flight intersection joints. This review, in detail, covers the classification of intersection joints, different loads experienced by the joints, and predictive and experimental methods adopted in the determination of joint compliance and its importance in predicting the dynamics of a flight vehicle.
Copyright © 2021 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.

Keywords


Flight-Transportation-Handling Loads; Flight Intersection Joint; Joint Rotation Compliance

Full Text:

PDF


References


European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), Special Condition Light Unmanned Aircraft Systems, SC Light-UAS 01, Issue: 1, (© EASA, Cologne, 2020).

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Doc. 9859/AN 474, Safety Management Manual (SMM), third ed. (© ICAO, Montreal, 2013).

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Doc. 10019/AN 507, Manual on Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), first ed. (© ICAO, Montreal, 2015).

F. Bonfante, Safety Management System for light RPAS, Analysis of a real case: study on the safety and the integration in the civil airspace with an evaluation of the regulatory impact in Italy, Doctoral dissertation, Dept. Aerosp. Eng. Politecnico di Torino, -Turin, Italy, 2019.

European Safety Aviation Agency (EASA), Easy Access Rules for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Regulation (EU) 2019/947 and Regulation (EU) 2019/945), (Cologne, 2020).

Dutta, A., et al., Expert Systems, FIETE, (2015), 31-37, Published online.

Masri N. et al., Survey of Rule-Based Systems, IJAISR, 3 (7), (2019), 1-23,

Kaczor, K., et al., Overview of Expert System Shells, Institute of Automatics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Inzynieria wiedzy, Kraków (Poland), (2010).

Tripathi, K. P. A., Review On Knowledge-based Expert Systems: Concept And Architecture, IJCA, (2011).

Sharma, T., et Al., Study of Difference Between Forward and Backward Reasoning, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (ISSN 2250-2459), Volume 2, (2012).

Arani, L. A., et Al., Intelligent Computer Systems for Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis: a Systematic Review of Reasoning Techniques and Methods, Acta Inform Med. 26(4), (2018), 258–264
https://doi.org/10.5455/aim.2018.26.258-264

Munaiseche C.P. C., et Al., An Expert System for Diagnosing Eyes Diseases Using Forward Chaining Method, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 306 012023, (2018).
https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/306/1/012023

G. C. Philip, Guidelines on Improving the Maintainability and Consultation of Rule-based Expert Systems, Expert Systems with Applications, (1993), 169-179.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0957-4174(93)90007-s

http://www.clipsrules.net/ (accessed on the web on the 3rd October 2018).

SESAR Joint Undertaking, U-Space Blueprint (Luxembourg, 2017).

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Circular 328/AN 190, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), first ed. (© ICAO, Montreal, 2011).

J Liebowitz, The Handbook of Applied Expert Systems, (Books.google.com, 2019)

Leveson, N. G., Engineering a safer world: systems thinking applied to safety, (The MIT Press, Cambridge, 2011), accessed on web on 24 June 2017.

Ajay K. S., Review of Expert System and Its Application in Robotics, Intelligent Communication, Control and Devices, (2018).

Hettiarachchi C. et Al., A Systematic Requirements and Risks-Based Test Case Prioritization Using a Fuzzy Expert System, IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS), Sofia, Bulgaria, pp. 374-385, (2019).
https://doi.org/10.1109/qrs.2019.00054

Hadjimichael M., A Fuzzy Expert System for Aviation Risk Assessment, Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Meteorology Division, Monterey, Expert Systems with Applications 36, 6512–6519, (2009).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2008.07.081

A.Wojnar, A. Kozłowski, Mechanical model for assessment of the stiffness of bolted flanged joint, Proc. of the 11th Int. Conf. on Metal Structures, Taylor & Francis, Rzeszów, Poland, (2006), 188-189.

A. Kozlowski, A. Wojnar, L. Sleczka, Influence of flanged bolted joints stiffness on the behaviour of steel chimneys, Proc. of the 3rd Int. Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, Cape Town, South Africa, (2007).

A. Kozlowski, A. Wojnar, Initial stiffness of flange bolted joints and their influence on the behaviour of steel chimneys, Proc. of Eurosteel 2008, 5th Conference on Steel and Composite Structures, Graz, Austria, (2008).

M. Couchaux, M. Hjiaj, I. Ryan, Behaviour of bolted circular flange joints subjected to a bending moment and an axial force, Proc. of Eurosteel 2011, 5th Conference on Steel and Composite Structures, Budapest, Hungary, (2011), 219-224.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcsr.2018.12.024

M.R. Azim, An analytical investigation on bolt tension of a flanged steel pipe joint subjected to bending moments, Int. J. of Eng. and App. Sci., 2(3), (2013).

M. Emara, E.S. Ahmed, E. Soliman, A. Azhar, Numerical analysis of CHS unstiffened bolted circular flange connection, University Civil Eng. Res. Magazine, 41 (1), (2019).

V. Weissberg, K. Wander, R. Itzhakov, A new approach to load transfer in bolted joints, 1988, Proc. of the Int. Council of Aeronautical Sciences, Israel Aircraft Industries Ltd, AIAA and ICAS-88-3.1.4 (1988), 96-101.

C.T. Allen. Computation of bolted joint stiffness using strain energy, Master of Science Thesis, University of Alabama, (2003).

O. Zhang, J.A. Poirier, New analytical model of bolted joints, ASME J. of Mech. Des., 126(4), (2004), 721-728.
https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1858928

I.R. Grosse, L.D. Mitchell, Nonlinear axial stiffness characteristics of axisymmetric bolted joints, ASME J. of Mech. Des., 112(3), (1990), 442-449.
https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2912628

R.K. Roy, Design and behavior of bolted joints, Nutek Inc, Version: 0602, (2014).

J. Kim, J.C. Yoon, B.S. Kang, Finite element analysis and modelling of structure with bolted joints, J. of App. Math. Modelling, 31(5), (2006), 865-911.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2006.03.020

J. Montgomery, Methods for modelling bolts in the bolted joint, Siemens, Westinghouse Power Corporation, Orlando, FL, USA, (2002).

T.F. Lehnhoff, B.A. Bunyard, Effects of bolt threads on the stiffness of bolted joints, ASME J. Pre. Ves. Tech., 123(2), (2001), 161-165.
https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1319504

J. Wileman, M. Choudhury, I. Green, Computation of member stiffness in bolted connections, ASME J. of Mech. Des., 113(4), (1991), 432-437.
https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2912801

N. Rasti, Comparative study of joint stiffness calculations using finite element analysis, M.S. Thesis, University of Windsor, Canada, (2007).

S.A. Nassar, X. Yang, S.V.T. Gandham, Z. Wu, Nonlinear deformation behavior of clamped bolted joints under a separating service load, J. of Pres. Ves. Tech., 133(2), (2011), 1-9.
https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4002674

R. Hopkins, L. Heitmann, A method to capture macro-slip at bolted interfaces, Proceedings of 34th Int. Modal Analysis Conference, USA, SEM, (2016).

M.R.W. Brake., D.J. Ewins, D.J. Segalman, L.A. Bergman, and D. Dane Quinn Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Jointed Structures, Sandia National Laboratories, USA, (2016).
https://doi.org/10.2172/1562833

M.R.W. Brake (Ed), The Mechanics of Jointed Structures, Springer, (2017).

R. Grzejda, Impact of nonlinearity of the contact layer between elements joined in a preloaded bolted flange joint on operational forces in the bolts, Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, 21(3), (2017), 541-548.
https://doi.org/10.1515/ijame-2017-0059

D.R. Roettgen, M.S.Allen, Nonlinear characterisation of a bolted industrial structure using a modal framework, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 84 (B), (2017), 152-170.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2015.11.010

F. Bruzzone, C. Delprete, C. Rosso, A proposal of a unique formula for computing compliance in bolted joints, J. of Procedia Structural Integrity 24 (2019) 167–177.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prostr.2020.02.089

Jaszak, Przemysław and Adamek, Konrad. Design and analysis of the flange-bolted joint with respect to required tightness and strength, Open Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, 2019, pp. 338-349.
https://doi.org/10.1515/eng-2019-0031

M.A. Welch, Preloaded bolted joint made with a single row of fasteners, J. of Mechanical Engineering, 70(1), (2020), 143-146.
https://doi.org/10.2478/scjme-2020-0014

W.Tao, B. Tan, G. Lu, B. Liu, D.Yang, Bolt pretightening force measurement based on strain distribution of bolt head surface, ASCE J. Aerospace Engineering, (2020), 33(4).
https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)as.1943-5525.0001147

G.M. Henson, B.A. Hornish, An evaluation of common analysis methods for bolted joints in launch vehicles, AIAA Journal, 3022, (2010), 1-27.
https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2010-3022

N. Kumar, P.V.G. Brahamanandam, B.V.P. Rao, 3-D finite element analysis of bolted flange joint of pressure vessel, MIT Int. J. of Mech. Eng., 1(1), (2011), 34-39.

S.M. Kaplan, Flexibility coefficients for structural joint assemblies, J. of Spacecrafts and Rockets, 8(1), (1971), 76-77.
https://doi.org/10.2514/3.30223

B. Kumar, N.V.M. Rao, R.K. Gupta, J.R. Mohan, Prediction and measurement of free vibration response of multistage launch vehicles, Proc. of 1st Indian Conference on Applied Mechanics (INCAM-2013), IIT Madras, (2013), 1-6.

J.B. Gunda, Y. Krishna, Influence of joint flexibility on vibration analysis of free-free beams. Nonlinear Engineering, 3(4), (2014), 237–246.
https://doi.org/10.1515/nleng-2014-0012

V.L. Alley, A.H. Gerringer, A matrix method for the determination of the natural vibrations of free-free unsymmetrical beams with applications to launch vehicles, NASA TN D-1247 (1962).

S.A. Leadbetter, V.L. Alley, W.H. Robert, A.H. Gerringer, An experimental and analytical investigation of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a four stage solid propellant rocket vehicle, NASA Technical Note D – 1354, (1962).

V.L. Alley, S.A. Leadbetter, The prediction and measurement of natural vibrations on multi stage launch vehicles, AIAA Journal, 1(2), (1963), 374-379.
https://doi.org/10.2514/3.1540

R. Newlands, M. Heywood, A. Lee, Rocket vehicle loads and airframe design, ASPIRE Space, Technical paper, (2012).

www.Military-Today.com

www.quickgs.com/list-of-indian-missiles-with-range/

Ammunition handling equipment, 14313B_Ch09.
http://www.navybmr.com/study%20material/NAVEDTRA%2014313B/14313B_ch09.pdf

C. Roberts. D. Ewins, Multi-axis vibration testing of an aerodynamically excited structure, J. of Vib. & Control, 24(2), (2016), 427-437.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1077546316642064

R.L. Mayes, B.R.Pacini and D.R. Roettgen. A Modal Method to Simulate Typical Structural Dynamic Nonlinearity Proceedings of 34th Int. Modal Analysis Conference, USA, SEM, (2016).

M.R.W. Brake, A Reduced Iwan Model that included Pinning for Bolted joint mechanics, Proceedings of 34th Int. Modal Analysis Conference, USA, SEM, (2016).

M.S. Allen, R.M. Lacayo, M.R.W. Brake, Quasi-static modal analysis based on implicit condensation for structures with nonlinear joints, Int. Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering, Leuven, 2016.

M.S. Bonney, B.A. Robertson, M. Mignolet, F. Schempp, M.R.W. Brake, Experimental determination of frictional interface models, Proceedings of 34th Int. Modal Analysis Conference, USA, SEM, (2016).

R.C. Flicek, K.J. Moore, G.M. Castelluccio, C.I. Hammetter, T.J. Truster, M.R.W. Brake, Stress waves propagating through jointed connections, Proceedings of 34th Int. Modal Analysis Conference, Orlando, FL, (2016).

T. Dossogne T.W. Jerome, D.P.T. Lancereau, S.A. Smith, M.R.W. Brake, B. Pacini, P.Reuß , C.W. Schwingshackl, Experimental assessment of jointed configuration, Proceedings of 35th Int. Modal Analysis Conference, USA, SEM, (2017).
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54930-9_22

T. Dossogne, T.W. Jerome, D.P.T. Lancereau, S.A. Smith, M.R.W. Brake, B. Pacini, P.Reuß , C.W. Schwingshackl, Experimental assessment of the influence of interface geometries on structural response, Proceedings of 35th Int. Modal Analysis Conference, USA, SEM, (2017).
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54930-9_22

R. Lacayo, L. Pesaresi, J. Groß, D.Fochler, J.Armand, L. Salles, C.W. Schwingshackl, M. Allen, M.R.W. Brake, Nonlinear modelling of structures with bolted joints: a comparison of two approaches based on time-domain and frequency-domain solver, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Elsevier, 114, (2019), 413-438.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2018.05.033

K.L. McIntyre, Modified Holzer-Myklestad model analysis, Final Report - CWA 245, General Dynamics, Pomona Division, Report No. TM 348-15, (1961).

U. Masuram, U.K. Punna, V. Narayanamurthy, S. Korla, Predicting the rotational compliance of a flight inter-section joint, NMIMS J of Eng & Tech Rev. 3(1), (2021), 62-73.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Please send any question about this web site to info@praiseworthyprize.com
Copyright © 2005-2021 Praise Worthy Prize