Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

From the Dawn of Aerodynamic Science to Modern Flow Control: a Brief Review

Noor A. Ahmed(1*)

(1) School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
(*) Corresponding author



The first decade of the last century saw the emergence of aerodynamics as a distinct scientific discipline. Since then through the engagement of the creative and innovative minds, the branch of aerodynamic science has progressed in leaps and bounds. The present paper is an attempt to look at the development of this branch of science from its infant days to the present day of active flow control. If concerted efforts are made involving not only aero dynamists, but also scientists and engineers of other disciplines, many of the novel aerodynamic concepts can be exploited to solve some of the pressing problems facing humanity and make the world a better place to live in.
Copyright © 2018 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Aerodynamics; Flow Control

Full Text:



Helmholtz, H., von (1858) (in German), ‘Uber Integrale der hydrodynamischen’, Gleichungen, Journal fur die reine and angewandte mathematic.

Kutta, M. W. (1902) (in German),‘Auftriebskrafte in stromendon flussigkeiten’, Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitiieilungen, 6.

Zhukovski, N., (1907), ‘On the adjunct vortices’, Transactions of the Physical section, 13, London.

Houghton, E. L. and Carpenter, P. W. (2003), ‘Aerodynamics for Engineering Students’, Butterworth-Heinemann.

Hoerner, S.F. (1992), ‘Fluid Dynamics Lift’, pub by Hoerner.

Abbott, H., and Von Doenhoff, A. E. (1956), ‘Theory of Wing Sections’, Dover Publications.

Prandtl, L. (1918) (in German), ‘Tragflugeltheorie’, Gottinger Nochrichten, Mathematematisc physikalische Klasse, Germany.

Lanchester, F. W. (1907), ‘Aerodynamics’, published by Lancchester, London.

Jones, R. T. (1946), ‘Properties of low aspect ratio pointed wings at speeds below and above the speed of sound’, NACA Rep. 835.

Katz, J. and Plotkin, A. (2001), ‘Low Speed Aerodynamics’, Cambridge University Press.

McCormick, B. W. (1997), ‘Aerodynamics, Aeronautics and Flight Mechanics’, 2nd edition, Wiley and Sons.

Prandtl, L. (1904) (in German), Uber Flussigkeitsbewegung bei sehr kleiner Reibung, Proc 3rd International Mathematical Congress, Heidelburg, Germany.

Blasius, H. (1908) (in German), ‘Grenzschichten in Flüssigkeiten mit kleiner Reibung’, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 56: 1–37.

Reynolds, O. (1883), ‘An experimental investigation of the circumstances which determine whether the motion of water shall be direct or sinuous and the law of resistance of parallel channels’, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London, series A, 174.

Karman, T. Von (1921), (in German), ‘Uber laminare and turbulente’, Reiburg Zeitschrift fur angewandte Mathematic und Mechanic, Germany.

Pohlhausen, K (1921), (in German), ‘Zur naherungsweisen Integration der Differential-gleichung der laminaren Greenzschicht’, Zeitschrift fur angewandte Mathematic und Mechanic, Germany.

Bradshaw, P. (1999), ‘The best turbulence models for engineers, in Modeling Complex Turbulent Flows’, vol.7 of the series ICASE/LaRC Interdisciplinary Series in Science and Engineering, Springer.

Bradshaw, P., ‘An Introduction to turbulence and its measurement’, Pergamon Press.

Jalasabri, J., Romli, F., Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Study on a Hybrid Airship Design, (2017) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 11 (8), pp. 573-579.

Penkov, I., Aleksandrov, D., Efficiency Optimization of Mini Unmanned Multicopter, (2017) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 10 (5), pp. 267-276.

Zahari, A., Romli, F., Potential of Commercial Human Spaceflight, (2017) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 10 (5), pp. 277-281.

Fox and McDonald (1999), Introduction to fluid Mechanics’, Wiley and Sons.

Schlichting, H, and Gersten, K., (2003), ‘Boundary-Layer Theory’, 8th Edition, Springer.

Pissasale, A. J., and Ahmed, N. A., ‘Theoretical calibration of a five hole probe for highly three dimensional flow’, International Journal of Measurement Science and Technology, vol 13, July, 2002, ISSN 095700233, pp1100-1107.

Pissasale, A. J., and Ahmed, N. A., ‘A novel method of extending the calibration range of five hole probe for highly three dimensional flows’, Journal of Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, vol. 13, issues 1-2, March-April, 2002, pp 23-30.

Pissasale, A. J., and Ahmed, N. A.,, ‘Examining the effect of flow reversal on seven-hole probe measurements’, AIAA Journal, vol 41, no 12, 2003, pp 2460-2467.

Pissasale, A. J., and Ahmed, N. A., ‘Development of a functional relationship between port pressures and flow properties for the calibration and application of multi-hole probes to highly three-dimensional flows’, Experiments in Fluids, vol 36, no.3, March, 2004, pp 422-436.

Reynolds, A. J. (1974), ‘Turbulent flows in Engg’, Wiley & Sons.

Ahmed, N.A., Elder, R.L., Foster ,C.P., and Jones, J.D.C., ‘Miniature Laser Anemometer for 3D Measurements’, J of Measurement Sc Technol, vol 1, 1990, pp272-276.

Ahmed, N. A., Elder, R. L., Foster, C. P., and Jones, J. D. C., ‘Laser Anemometry in Turbomachines’, IMechE Proc, Part G, J of Aerospace Engineering, vol 205, 1991, pp1-12.

Ahmed, N. A., Elder, R. L., Foster, C. P., Jones, J. D. C., and Tatum, R., ‘Fibre Optic Laser Anemometry for Turbo machinery Applications’, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, vol 15, nos 2 and 3, 1992, pp193-205 .

Rae and Pope (1984), ‘Low Speed Wind Tunnel Testing’, 2nd Ed., Wiley, 1984.

Shun, S., and Ahmed, N. A. ‘Design of a Dynamic Stall Test Rig’, (2012), Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 215-216, pp 785-795.

Menzies, K. (2014), ‘Delivering better power: the role of simulation in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft engines’, Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society, A.

Defromont, T., Rathakrishnan, E., Supersonic Jet Control with Air-Tabs, (2016) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 9 (2), pp. 37-42.

Zhumadullayev, D., Volnenko, A., Balabekov, O., Serikuly, Z., Kumisbekov, S., Ramatullayeva, L., Heat Carrier Vortex Motion Influence on the Hydrodynamics and Heat Exchange in the Pipes with Transverse Collars and Flow Core Energizers, (2017) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 11 (2), pp. 127-131.

Rawabawale, N., Sapali, S., MATLAB Simulation and Validation of Fluid Properties in the Cross Flow Wet Cooling Tower, (2017) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 11 (2), pp. 114-120.

Nazari, A., Ahmed, S., Separation Control by Using Rotating Cylinders, (2017) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 11 (1), pp. 10-15.

Gad-el Haq, M., (2000), ‘Flow Control’, Cambridge Uni Press.

Ahmed, N.A., (2014), ‘Active Flow Control Assisted Building Ventilation of the Future’, Advances in Engineering Research, Vol. 8, pp187-213.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2021 Praise Worthy Prize