Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Numerical Study of the Circular Cylinder in Supersonic Ground Effect Conditions

Oliviu Sugar-Gabor(1*)

(1) School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, United Kingdom
(*) Corresponding author



A numerical study of the aerodynamics of a circular cylinder section in proximity to the ground surface was performed, for Mach numbers of 1.5 and 2.9 and ground clearances between 2 and 0.125, non-dimensional with respect to the cylinder diameter. The supersonic flow was computed using a finite-volume Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver, using adequately stabilized numerical schemes. The flow field computed in ground effect conditions was complex, and significantly varied as a function of both variables. The shape and standoff distance of the detached bow shock were very sensitive to changes in ground clearance. The velocity profile in the gap between the cylinder and ground showed significant interactions between the two boundary layers, and a gradually reduced supersonic expansion close the body surface.
Copyright © 2018 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Ground Effect; Supersonic Flow; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Shock Wave-Ground Plane Interaction

Full Text:



Rozhdestvensky, K.V. Wing-in-Ground Effect Vehicles. Progress in Aerospace Sciences 42, 2006, pp. 211-283.

Li, R. and Chen, H. The Feasibility of High Speed Ground Effect Vehicles. 17th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, AIAA AVIATION Forum 2017, (AIAA 2017-3423).

Mirochnitchenko, V.A. and Takahashi, T.T. An Investigation into the Design of an Efficient In Ground Effect Flying Vehicle Planform. 15th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, AIAA AVIATION Forum 2015, (AIAA 2015-3000).

Doig, G. Transonic and Supersonic Ground Effect Aerodynamics. Progress in Aerospace Sciences 69, 2014, pp. 1-28.

Kumaravel, G., Jeyajothiraj, P., Rathakrishnan, E., Transonic Shock Wave Patterns Over an Airfoil in an Accelerated Flow, (2015) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 8 (2), pp. 56-70.

Fago, B., Lindner, H. and Mahrenholtz, O. The Effect of Ground Simulation on the Flow around Vehicles in Wind Tunnel Testing. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 38(1), 1991, pp. 47-57.

Weiselsberger, C. Wing Resistance near the Ground. NACA TM-77, 1922.

Fink, M.P. and Lastinger, J.L. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Low Aspect Ratio Wings in Close Proximity to the Ground. NASA TN-D-926, 1961.

Doig, G., Barber, T.J., Leonardi, E., Neely, A.J. and Kleine, H. Methods for Investigating Supersonic Ground Effect in a Blowdown Wind Tunnel. Shock Waves 18(2), 2008, pp. 155-159.

Barber, T.J., Leonardi, E. and Archer, R.D. Causes for Discrepancies in Ground Effect Analyses. Aeronautical Journal 106(1066), 2002, pp. 653-657.

Doig, G., Barber, T., Neely, A. and Myre, D.D. Aerodynamics of an Aerofoil in Transonic Ground Effect: Numerical Study at Full-Scale Reynolds Number. Aeronautical Journal 116(1178), 2012, pp.407-430.

Doig, G., Barber, T. and Neely, A. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Swept Wing in Close Ground Proximity at High Subsonic Mach Numbers. Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol. 25, 2012, pp. 600-612.

Gao, B., Qu, Q. and Agarwal, R.K. Aerodynamics of a Transonic Airfoil in Ground Effect. 35th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, AIAA AVIATION Forum 2017, (AIAA 2017-3405).

Sheridan, C., Young, J., Kleine, H., Hiraki, K. and Nonaka, S. Ground Effect of Transonic and Supersonic Projectiles: Influence of Mach Number and Ground Clearance. In: Ben-Dor G., Sadot O., Igra O. (eds) 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves 1, 2017.

Young, J., Carriage, K., Oakes, B., Kleine, H., Hiraki, K. and Inatani, Y. Numerical Simulation and Experiments on the Ground Effect of Transonic Projectiles. In: Bonazza R., Ranjan D. (eds) 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves 2, 2015, pp. 1297-1302

Kleine, H., Hiraki, K., Oakes, B., Young, J., Kusano, H. and Inatani, Y. Projectiles in Transonic Ground Effect. Proceedings of the 29th International Congress on High-Speed Imaging and Photonics, 2011.

.Doig, G., Wang, S., Young, J. and Kleine, H. Aerodynamics of Transonic and Supersonic Projectiles in Ground Effect. Proceedings of the 52nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 2014, National Harbour, Maryland, USA.

Sheridan, C.J. A Computational Analysis of Ground Effect Influence on a Transonic/Supersonic Projectile. ADFA Journal of Undergraduate Engineering Research, Vol. 7, No 2 (2015)

Doig, G., Barber, T.J., Leonardi, E., Neely, A.J. and Kleine, H. Aerodynamics of a Supersonic Projectile in Proximity to a Solid Surface. AIAA Journal, Vol. 48(12), 2011, pp. 2916-2930.

Doig, G., Wang, S., Young, J. and Kleine, H. Aerodynamic Analysis of Projectiles in Ground Effect at Near-Sonic Mach Numbers. AIAA Journal, Vol. 54, No. 1 (2016), pp. 150-160.

Kumaravel, G., Jeyajothiraj, P., Rathakrishnan, E., Formation and Dissipation of Karman Vortex Street in an Accelerating Flow Past a Circular Cylinder, (2015) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 8 (2), pp. 43-55.

Johnston, L.J. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Multi-Element, High-Lift Aerofoil Sections at Transonic Manoeuvre Conditions. Proceeding of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol. 226, 2012, pp. 912-929.

Spalart, P. and Allmaras, S. A One-Equation Turbulence Model for Aerodynamic Flows. Technical Report AIAA-92-0439. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. 1992.

Menter, F.R. Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering Applications. AIAA Journal, Vol. 32(8), 1994, pp. 1598–1605.

Cantariti, F.J.J. and Johnston, L.J. High-Lift Navier-Stokes Computations on Unstructured Grids Using a Differential Reynolds Stress Model. In Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics V. Editors: Morton, K.W. and Baines, M.J. pp. 319-325, (Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, UK).

Jameson, A., Schmidt, W. and Turkel, E. Numerical Solution of the Euler Equations by Finite Volume Methods Using Runge Kutta Time Stepping Schemes. in Proceedings of the 14th Fluid and Plasma Dynamics Conference, 1981, pp. 1259-1278.

Jameson, A. Time Dependent Calculations Using Multigrid with Applications to Unsteady Flows Past Airfoils and Wings. AIAA Paper 91-1596, 1991.

Gowen, F.E. and Perkins, E.W. Drag of Circular Cylinders for a Wide Range of Reynolds Numbers and Mach Numbers. NACA TN 2960, 1953.

Dharavath, M., Manna, P. and Chakraborty, D. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Tip-to-Tail for Hypersonic Test Vehicle. Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 31, No. 5 (2015), pp. 1370-1379.

Delery, J. and Le Balleur, J.C. Interaction choc-couche limite turbulente a Mach = 1.92 at 1.62. Synthese des resultats obtenus. ONERA NT-8/7078AY, 1972.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2020 Praise Worthy Prize