Ecological Threats Caused by Improper Disposal and Incineration of Municipal Solid Waste
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The paper discusses a critical situation regarding municipal solid waste (MSW) in Donetsk city (Ukraine) as a suitable example. Special attention is given to such problems as bio-degradation and self-ignition of MSW dumps as well as the hazard of dioxins that might be present in the emitted gases. The paper describes the materials as well as techniques used for experiments and calculations of results. The paper offers theoretical calculations of biogas emissions from MSW landfill bodies as well as the results of experimental measurements performed within laboratory conditions of a “MSW micro-landfill”. Dynamics of development of microorganism colonies within the body of MSW has been studied experimentally and a mathematical model of these processes was developed. There was calculated a volume of leachate (“MSW-sewage”) produced at MSW landfills as well as migration of toxic waste from the leachate to underground water and soil surrounding MSW landfills of Donetsk. MSW self-ignition processes taking place within waste layers and diffusion of toxic fire-hazardous gases have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. There have been developed and proposed techniques of forecasting and prevention of MSW self-ignition within MSW layers. Processes of MSW incineration together with resinous industrial waste have been studied within the framework of experiments, namely: there were measured emissions of toxic combustion gases and heavy metals as well as “distribution” of the latter in combustion gases and ash
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