Modeling of Clay Paste Extrusion through a Rectangular Die

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations

DOI's assignment:
the author of the article can submit here a request for assignment of a DOI number to this resource!
Cost of the service: euros 10,00 (for a DOI)


An important aspect of clay paste extrusion is the pressure as a function of extruded velocity/distance traveled. Therefore, the present theory concentrates on deriving basic equations that control the clay paste flow behavior of rectangular extrusion process during the steady-state flow. The main parameters which control the extrusion pressure are the effective stress in compression of the clay paste, the geometry of extrusion tools and billet, operational conditions and the coefficients of friction between the barrel and the die land surfaces. The theoretical extrusion pressure results were analyzed and discussed thoroughly. Finally, it can be concluded that the present theoretical analysis serves to place the present approach in the context of work on other extrudable materials of different geometry. In addition, it can be used as an effective tool for evaluating and obtaining clay paste materials with optimized properties for extrusion process in the ceramic industry
Copyright © 2013 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Clay; Extrusion; Materials Processing; Mathematical Modeling; Paste; Unit Operations

Full Text:



J. Benbow, J. Bridgwater, Paste Flow and Extrusion (Oxford University Press, New York, 1993).

J.S. Reed, Principles of Ceramics Processing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1995).

F. Händle, (Ed.), Extrusion in Ceramics (Springer, New York, 2007).

S. Amarasinghe, I. Wilson, Interpretation of paste extrusion data, Transactions of IChemE 76-A (1998) 3-8.

M.J. Ribeiro, J.M. Ferreira, J.A. Labrincha, Plastic behaviour of different ceramic pastes processed by extrusion, Ceramics International 31 (2005) 515-519.

C.O. Modesto, A.M. Bernardini, Determination of clay plasticity: Indentation method versus Pfefferkorn method, Applied Clay Science 40 (2008) 15-19.

V. Doménech, E. Sánchez, V. Sanz, J. García, F. Ginés, Assessing the plasticity of ceramic masses by determining indentation force, 3rd World Congress on Ceramic Tile Quality, Castellón, Spain (1994).

T.W. Feng, Using a small ring and a fall-cone to determine the plastic limit, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 130 (2004) 630-635.

J.L. Amorós, G. Mallol, B. Campos, M.J. Orts, M.C. Bordes, Study of the rheological behaviour of different ceramic powder materials, 10th World Congress on Ceramic Tile Quality, Castellón, Spain (2008).

D.B. Price, J.S. Reed, Boundary conditions in electrical porcelain extrusion, American Ceramic Society Bulletin 6 (1983) 1348-1350.

J.J. Benbow, E.W. Oxley, J. Bridgwater, The extrusion mechanics of paste - The influence of paste formations on the extrusion parameters, Chemical Engineering Science 42 (1987) 2151-2162.

J.J. Benbow, T.A. Lawson, E.W. Oxley, J. Bridgwater, Prediction of paste extrusion pressure, American Ceramic Society Bulletin 68 (1989) 1821-1824.

J. Zheng, W.B. Carlson, J.S. Reed, Flow mechanics on extrusion through a square entry die, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 75 (1993) 3011-3016.

A.S. Burbidge, J. Bridgwater, The single screw extrusion of pastes, Chemical Engineering Science 50 (1995) 2531-2543.

O. Hoffman, G. Sachs, Introduction to the Theory of Plasticity for Engineers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1953).

B. Avitzur, Analysis of metal extrusion, Transactions of ASME B-87 (1965) 57-70.

O.J.U. Flores, A.P.N. Oliveira, M.C. Fredel, H.A. Al-Qureshi, D. Hotza, Experimental analysis of cylindrical clay bodies subjected to compressive axial loading, Brazilian MRS Meeting 2006, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil (2006).

O.J.U. Flores, A.P.N. Oliveira, M.C. Fredel, H.A. Al-Qureshi, D. Hotza, Mathematical model applied for evaluation of plasticity in clays with different moisture contents, 50th Brazilian Ceramics Conference, Blumenau, SC, Brazil (2006).

Baran, B., Erturk, T., Sarikaya, Y., Alemdaloglu, T., 2001. Workability test method for metals applied to examine a workability measure (plastic limit) for clays. Applied Clay Science 20 (1-2), 53–63.

F.A. Andrade, H.A. Al-Qureshi, D. Hotza, Theoretical analysis of rectangular clay paste extrusion, 11th International Conference on Advanced Materials, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil (2009)

S.L. Correia, K.A.S. Curto, D. Hotza, A.M. Segadães, Clay from Southern Brazil: Physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization, Materials Science Forum 498-499 (2005) 447-452.

G.M. Reeves, I. Sims, J.C. Cripps (Ed.). Clay Materials Used in Construction (Geological Society, London, 2006).

H.A. Al-Qureshi, M.R.F. Soares, D. Hotza, M.C. Alves, A.N. Klein, Analyses of the fundamental parameters of cold die compaction of powder metallurgy. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 199 (2008) 417-424.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize