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Review of Computerized Prosthetic Knee Joints in Terms of Mechanical and Control Design

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The computerized prosthetic knee joints equipped with advanced embedded systems that enable control of lower limb movements for amputees using hardware and software components. The hardware of the embedded system represents each of the actuators, sensors, and microcontrollers while the software uses algorithms of artificial intelligence that control movements of the knee joint by a microcontroller that receives the input signal from sensors and transmits it to the actuator to conduct the required motion. An overview comprehensive will be presented of everything related to the mechanical and control design of computerized prosthetic knee joints by exploring the complete mechanical design, including mechanisms, materials, actuators, numerical analysis, and control design, including, sensing system, control method, and microcontroller, this paper fills a gap in the existing literature and offers a more comprehensive understanding of the field, unlike the available recent review articles related to the smart prosthetic knee joints that have typically focused on individual aspects, such as specific actuators or control methods for active prosthetic knee joints. A systematic approach was followed. A group of relevant papers was selected, covering the period up to October 2022. Then, these papers were categorized based on the mechanical and control design aspects of smart prosthesis. This paper will be given a complete image for all researchers interested in prosthetics, especially intelligent prosthesis for all used actuators, sensory system, microcontrollers and opinions of previous authors related to numerical analysis thus they will enrich the researchers and will be a starting point for future works.
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Computerized Prosthetic Knee Joint; Powered Knee; Mechanical Design; Powered Actuators; Variable Damping Actuator

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