Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Prediction of Ball Position in Three-Dimensional Space Using Artificial Neural Networks on Robot ERSOW

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



The quality of the goalkeeping robots is essential to winning in the wheeled robots soccer competition. The goalkeeper robots should be able to block the arrival ball fast and correctly. This research aims to predict the ball position at the goal area in three-dimensional space using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and fusion camera on the ERSOW robot. The proposed system contributes to the development of the previous system by adding predictive capabilities from two-dimensional space into three dimensions. The system can estimate and predict the final position of the ball in three dimensional space. The dimensional space has been the x-axis, the y-axis, and the z-axis (height of the ball). Based on all the experiments, the estimation error value for the ball height or z-axis is 3.19 cm, the x-axis is 6.05 cm, and the y-axis is 9.98 cm. The prediction value for the rolling ball on the floor has the RMSE values in x-axis of 21.33 cm, y-axis of 1.29 cm, and z-axis of 0.04 cm. For the bouncing ball, it has a RMSE values in x-axis of 22.93 cm, y-axis of 1.37 cm, and z-axis of 1.40 cm.
Copyright © 2022 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Artificial Neural Network; Fusion Camera; Ball Prediction; ERSOW

Full Text:



Setiawardhana, S., Dikairono, R., Purwanto, D., Sardjono, T., Ball Position Estimation in Goal Keeper Robots Using Neural Network, (2020) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 13 (1), pp. 38-48.

Setiawardhana, R. Dikairono, D. Purwanto, and T. A. Sardjono, Goal Keeper Robot Navigation Based on Position Prediction and Ball Arrival Time, J. Nas. Tek. Elektro Dan Teknol. Inf., vol. 9, no. 3, Art. no. 3, Aug. 2020.

R. Dikairono et al., CNN-Based Self Localization Using Visual Modelling of a Gyrocompass Line Mark and Omni-Vision Image for a Wheeled Soccer Robot Application, Int. J. Intell. Eng. Syst., vol. 13, no. 6, Art. no. 6, Dec. 2020.

I. Sonata, Y. Heryadi, L. Lukas, and A. Wibowo, Autonomous car using CNN deep learning algorithm, J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1869, no. 1, p. 012071, Apr. 2021.

Ali Salman, S., Khasawneh, Q., Jaradat, M., Alramlawi, M., Indoor Navigation System of Omni-Directional Mobile Robot Based on Static Obstacles Avoidance, (2020) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 13 (1), pp. 27-37.

Oultiligh, A., Ayad, H., El Kari, A., Mjahed, M., El Gmili, N., A Hybrid PSO-GWO Algorithm for Robot Path Planning in Uncertain Environments, (2021) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 14 (6), pp. 360-372.

I. K. Wibowo, M. A. Haq, M. M. Bachtiar, B. S. B. Dewantara, and F. L. H. Ihsan, Ball Detection using Local Binary Pattern in Middle Size Robot Soccer (ERSOW), in 2019 2nd International Conference of Computer and Informatics Engineering (IC2IE), Sep. 2019, pp. 29-32.

E. A. Nurrohmah, B. S. Bayu, M. M. Bachtiar, I. K. Wibowo, and R. Adryantoro, Detecting Features of Middle Size Soccer Field using Omnidirectional Camera for Robot Soccer ERSOW, in 2020 International Conference on Smart Technology and Applications (ICoSTA), Feb. 2020, pp. 1-6.

E. A. Nurrohmah, R. A. Priambudi, B. N. D. Ariyadi, I. K. Wibowo, and B. S. B. Dewantara, Real-Time Ball Speed Stabilization Acquisition using Low Pass Filter on Robot Soccer ERSOW, in 2020 International Conference on Computer Engineering, Network, and Intelligent Multimedia (CENIM), Nov. 2020, pp. 280-286.

Alwan, H., Path Tracking Simulation of a Wheeled Mobile Robot with Three Mecanum Wheels, (2020) International Review of Mechanical Engineering (IREME), 14 (8), pp. 516-522.

C. Hong, I. Jeong, L. F. Vecchietti, D. Har, and J.-H. Kim, AI World Cup: Robot-Soccer-Based Competitions, IEEE Trans. Games, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 330-341, Dec. 2021.

B. Sugandi and A. D. Zain, Localization of Wheeled Soccer Robots Using Particle Filter Algorithm, in 2019 2nd International Conference on Applied Engineering (ICAE), Oct. 2019, pp. 1-4.

Batayneh, W., Aburmaileh, Y., Adeeb, M., Al-Karasneh, A., Smooth 2D Navigation in Hazardous Areas Utilizing a GA-PID Controlled Omnidirectional Mobile Robot with Kinematic Constraint Consideration, (2021) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 14 (3), pp. 213-220.

M. Jiono, Y. D. Mahandi, Y. Rahmawati, S. C. Putro, F. Ardiyansyah, and D. Prasetyo, Online Motion Planning For Mobile Robot, in 2019 International Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Information Engineering (ICEEIE), Oct. 2019, vol. 6, pp. 85-89.

J. Scherer and B. Rinner, Multi-Robot Persistent Surveillance With Connectivity Constraints, IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 15093-15109, 2020.

D. Flögel, N. P. Bhatt, and E. Hashemi, Infrastructure-Aided Localization and State Estimation for Autonomous Mobile Robots, Robotics, vol. 11, no. 4, Art. no. 4, Aug. 2022.

Z. Zhao, Y. Zhang, J. Shi, L. Long, and Z. Lu, Robust Lidar-Inertial Odometry with Ground Condition Perception and Optimization Algorithm for UGV, Sensors, vol. 22, no. 19, Art. no. 19, Jan. 2022.

Y. Zhuang, X. Jiang, Y. Gao, Z. Fang, and H. Fujita, Unsupervised Monocular Visual Odometry for Fast-Moving Scenes Based on Optical Flow Network with Feature Point Matching Constraint, Sensors, vol. 22, no. 24, Art. no. 24, Jan. 2022.

J. Jin and W. Chung, Obstacle Avoidance of Two-Wheel Differential Robots Considering the Uncertainty of Robot Motion on the Basis of Encoder Odometry Information, Sensors, vol. 19, no. 2, Art. no. 2, Jan. 2019.

Y. Liu, Y. Zhao, S. Yan, C. Song, and F. Li, A Sampling-Based Algorithm with the Metropolis Acceptance Criterion for Robot Motion Planning, Sensors, vol. 22, no. 23, Art. no. 23, Jan. 2022.

A. Ramezani Dooraki and D.-J. Lee, A Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning Based Controller for Autonomous Navigation in Challenging Environments, Machines, vol. 10, no. 7, Art. no. 7, Jul. 2022.

S. Marton, S. Lüdtke, and C. Bartelt, Explanations for Neural Networks by Neural Networks, Appl. Sci., vol. 12, no. 3, Art. no. 3, Jan. 2022.

K. Toda, M. Teranishi, K. Kushiro, and K. Fujii, Evaluation of soccer team defense based on prediction models of ball recovery and being attacked: A pilot study, PLOS ONE, vol. 17, no. 1, p. e0263051, Jan. 2022.

H. Liang, Z. Ma, and Q. Zhang, Self-Supervised Object Distance Estimation Using a Monocular Camera, Sensors, vol. 22, no. 8, Art. no. 8, Jan. 2022.

W.-C. Lo, C.-C. Chiu, and J.-H. Yang, Three-Dimensional Object Segmentation and Labeling Algorithm Using Contour and Distance Information, Appl. Sci., vol. 12, no. 13, Art. no. 13, Jan. 2022.

B.-S. Seo, B. Park, and H. Choi, Sensing Range Extension for Short-Baseline Stereo Camera Using Monocular Depth Estimation, Sensors, vol. 22, no. 12, Art. no. 12, Jan. 2022.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize