Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Microgrid Frequency Stability Enhancement Through Controlling Electric Vehicles Batteries Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



The large-scale renewable energy contribution tends to expand vastly; this is due to the numerous benefits of the renewable energy, but renewable resources are intermittent and changeable in nature, which would affect the microgrid frequency stability. In this paper, a renewable and green microgrid is proposed aiming to emission power generation; the microgrid consists of biogas plant, biodiesel plant, photovoltaic system, wind turbines, battery energy storage system, load, and electric vehicles. The main contribution of this paper is providing the frequency stability enhancement of the proposed microgrid through controlling the electric vehicles batteries using fuzzy logic controller based on three main factors, the state of charge of the electric vehicles batteries, the microgrid frequency deviation signal, and the departure time of the vehicle that is set in advance by the owner. This work is discussing three scenarios, in the first one, the batteries of the electric vehicles are going to be charged directly once they get plugged into the charging point, in the second one, the electric vehicles batteries are going to be charged based on fuzzy charging control technique, in the third scenario, the vehicle to grid concept is applied, so the charging and discharging of the electric vehicles batteries are going to be controlled through fuzzy logic controller.
Copyright © 2020 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Biogas Plant; Biodiesel Plant; Electric Vehicles; Frequency Stability; Fuzzy Logic Controller; Photovoltaic; Wind Energy; Zero-Emission Microgrid; Particle Swarm Optimization

Full Text:



A. Jabbarzadeh, B. Fahimnia, and S. Rastegar, Green and Resilient Design of Electricity Supply Chain Networks: A Multiobjective Robust Optimization Approach, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 52-72, Feb 2019.

A. Barik, and D. Das, Expeditious Frequency Control of Solar Photovoltaic, Biogas/Biodiesel Generator Based Isolated Microgrid, IET Renewable Power Generation, pp. 1659-1667, October 2018.

K. Joung, T. Kim, and J. Park, Decoupled Frequency and Voltage Control for Stand-Alone Microgrid With High Renewable Penetration, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 55, no. 1, Jan.-Feb 2019.

W. Tan, M. Shaaban, Stochastic Generation Scheduling with Variable Renewable Generation: Methods, and Applications, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1467-1480, May 2019.

S. Basha, and K. Gopal, A Review on Biodiesel Production, Combustion, Emissions, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 13, pp.1628-1634, August–September 2009.

M. Harby, S. Elmasry, J. Marcos, and A. Samahy, Impact of Electric Vehicles on Power System with High Wind Power Penetration, IJRA International Journal of Automation, vol.8, no.2, pp. 146-154, March 2019.

A. Hadi, and R. Challoo, Algorithm to Maximize the Penetration of Renewable Energy, IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 55279-55288, March 2020.

M. Harby, S. Elmasry, A. Samahy, and L. Marroyo, Performance of Two-Area Interconnected Power System with High Wind Power Penetration in Presence of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, ESJ European Scientific Journal vol.14, no.30, October 2018.

M. Latifi, and S. Sanei, A Bayesian Real-Time Electric Vehicle Charging Strategy for Mitigating Renewable Fluctuations, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 15, no. 5, pp., May 2019.

K. Islam, and M. Munna, Design and Performance analysis of a hybrid solar PV and biogas power plant using PLC, ICGET 3rd International Conference on Green Energy and Technology, pp. 1-6. IEEE, Sep 2015.

F. Basrawi, and H. Ibrahim, Optimal Unit Sizing of Biogas-Fuelled Micro Gas Turbine Cogeneration Systems in a Sewage Treatment Plant, Energy Procedia, vol. 75, August 2015.

D. Das, A. Roy, and N. Sinha, GA Based Frequency Controller for Solar Thermal–Diesel–Wind HybridEnergy Generation/Energy Storage System, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 43(1), pp.262-279, December 2012.

D. Das, and N. Sinha, Automatic Generation Control of an Organic Rankine Cycle Solar–Thermal/Wind–Diesel Hybrid Energy System, Energy Technology, vol. 2(8), pp.721-731, May 2014.

G. Cau, D. Cocco, and C. Milan, Energy Management Strategy Based on Short-Term Generation Scheduling for a Renewable Microgrid Using a Hydrogen Storage System, Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 87, pp.820-831, November 2014.

C. Zhang, and A. Prabhakar, Quantifying the Benefits of Electric Vehicles on the Future Electricity Grid in the Midwestern United States, Applied Energy, vol. 270, p.115174, July 2020.

J. Li., Q. Yang, and H. He, An Improved Vehicle to the Grid Method with Battery Longevity Management in a Microgrid Application, Energy, p.117374, May 2020.

O. Egbue, and C. Uko, Multi-Agent Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Microgrid Operation with Vehicle-to-Grid System, The Electricity Journal, vol. 33(3), p.106714, April 2020.

H. Mehrjerdi, and E. Rakhshani, Vehicle-to-Grid Technology for Cost Reduction and Uncertainty Management Integrated with Solar Power, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 229, pp.463-469, August 2019.

M. Masrur, Military-Based Vehicle-to-Grid and Vehicle-to-Vehicle Microgrid-System Architecture and Implementation, IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 157-171, March 2018.

S. Amamra, and J. Marco, Vehicle-to-Grid Aggregator to Support Power Grid and Reduce Electric Vehicle Charging Cost, IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 178528-178538, December 2019.

H. Turker, and S. Bacha, Optimal Minimization of Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Cost with Vehicle-to-Home and Vehicle-to-Grid Concepts, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 67, no. 11, pp., Nov. 2018.

B. Mohanty, and K. Hota, Controller Parameters Tuning of Differential Evolution Algorithm and Application to LFC of, International Journal of Electrical Power, vol.54, Elsevier January 2014.

Y. Daili, J. Gaubert, and L.Rahmani, New Control Strategy for Fast-Efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking without Mechanical Sensors, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, vol. 7(4), July 2015.

X. Luo, and K. Chan, A Decentralized Charging Control Strategy for Plug-in Electric Vehicles to Enhance Frequency Regulation, Journal of power sources, vol. 248, pp.604-614, February 2014.

H. Bevrani, and R. Daneshmand, Fuzzy Logic-Based Load-Frequency Control Concerning High Penetration of Wind Turbines, IEEE systems journal, vol. 6(1), pp.173-180, February 2011.

Q. Sun, and D. Qin, Adaptive Fuzzy Droop Control for Optimized Power Sharing, Energies, vol. 12(1), pp.1-23, December 2018.

R. Golkhandan, and A. Keyhani, Load Frequency Control of Smart Isolated Power Grids with High Wind Farm Penetrations, IET RenewablePower Generation, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1228-1238, 18 5, March 2020.

C. Osinski, and G. Oliveira, Fuzzy PID Controller Design for LFC, IEEE Latin America Transactions, vol. 17, no. 01, pp. 147-154, January 2019.

T. Kerdphol and Y. Qudaih, Optimization of a Battery Energy Storage System Using PSO for Stand-Alone Microgrids, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 81, Elsevier October 2016.

T. Jumani, and B. Awan, Swarm Intelligence-Based Optimization Techniques for Power Quality Enhancement of AC Microgrids: A Comprehensive Review, IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 75986-76001, April 2020.

Wu, T., and Wu, L., Application of PID Optimization Control Strategy Based on PSO for battery charging system, International Journal of Low- Carbon Technologies. 2020.

Gadala, Sensitivity Analysis of Control Parameters in PSO,m Journal of Computational Science, 41, p.101086. 2020.

Boukli-Hacene, F. and Mourad, K.A, Particle Swarm Optimization for Micro-Grid Power Management and Load Scheduling, International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 10(2), 2020.

Abdul-Adheem, W.R., An Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm, International Journal of Electrical & Computer Engineering (2088-8708), September 2019.

Kadhum, and Ali, M, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Based PID Controller for the Control, Recent Trends and Advances in Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things, 172, p.217. 2019.

A. Del Pizzo, L. P. Di Noia and S. Meo, Super twisting sliding mode control of smart-inverters grid-connected for PV applications, 2017 IEEE 6th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA), San Diego, CA, 2017, pp. 793-796.

Zizoui, M., Tabbache, B., Zia, M., Benbouzid, M., Control of Isolated Photovoltaic-Battery-Ultracapacitor Microgrid for Remote Areas, (2020) International Journal on Energy Conversion (IRECON), 8 (2), pp. 38-44.

Iswanto, I., Mujaahid, F., Rohmansyah, R., Ardi Nugraha, T., Shekher, V., Quadrotor Tracking Control Based on Optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller, (2019) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 12 (6), pp. 261-270.

Tynchenko, V., Milov, A., Tynchenko, V., Bukhtoyarov, V., Kukartsev, V., Intellectualizing the Process of Waveguide Tracks Induction Soldering for Spacecrafts, (2019) International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), 12 (6), pp. 280-289.

Del Pizzo, A., Meo, S., Brando, G., Dannier, A., Ciancetta, F., An Energy Management Strategy for Fuel-cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles via Particle Swarm Optimization Approach, (2014) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 7 (4), pp. 543-553.

Gunantara, N., Sudiarta, P., Antara, I., Multi-Criteria Weights on Ad Hoc Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization for Optimal Path Pairs, (2018) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 13 (1), pp. 15-22.

Boukef, H., Benrejeb, M., Borne, P., Genetic Algorithm and Based Particle Swarm Optimization Comparison for Solving a Flow-Shop Multiobjective Scheduling Problem in Pharmaceutical Industries, (2018) International Journal on Engineering Applications (IREA), 6 (6), pp. 221-226.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize