Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Control System for a Permanent Magnet Wind Turbine Using Particle Swarm Optimization and Proportional Integral Controller

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



Currently, Morocco, as other countries with no own oil resources, is facing a double challenging task: meeting the increasing electricity demand and keeping energy import level under control.  The main solution for these countries is to move towards renewable energy sources if its potential allows it. Wind energy is one of the renewable sources considered for large-scale production and recently for small-scale plant due to the emergence notion of distributed energy and Hybrid Renewable Production Systems. However, this type of generator is known for its design complexity as well as its control system and the adequacy of generator topology for a certain application. For this purpose, this paper highlights the generators used most frequently in wind conversion and provides an overview towards wind power conversion topologies. Furthermore, the wind conversion system of a three-blade horizontal axis permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine, vector control and maximum power extraction using Particle Swarm Optimization combined to linear control applied to are also investigated and simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK in this work.
Copyright © 2020 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Electrical Generators; Wind Turbine; Particle Swarm Optimization; PI Linear Control; Vector Control; MATLAB/SIMULINK Simulation

Full Text:



Z. Gao et al., An overview on development of wind power generation, in Proceedings of the 28th Chinese Control and Decision Conference, CCDC 2016, 2016, pp. 435–439.

C. W. Zheng, C. Y. Li, J. Pan, M. Y. Liu, and L. L. Xia, An overview of global ocean wind energy resource evaluations, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 53. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 1240–1251, 01-Jan-2016.

G. Bandoc, R. Prăvălie, C. Patriche, and M. Degeratu, Spatial assessment of wind power potential at global scale. A geographical approach, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 200. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 1065–1086, 01-Nov-2018.

S. J. Wang and P. Moriarty, Energy savings from Smart Cities: A critical analysis, in Energy Procedia, 2019, vol. 158, pp. 3271–3276.

A. C. Kelly and J. A. Merritt, Hybrid Systems: A Review of Current and Future Feasibility, Electr. J., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 97–104, Nov. 2014.

W. Ma, X. Xue, and G. Liu, Techno-economic evaluation for hybrid renewable energy system: Application and merits, Energy, vol. 159. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 385–409, 15-Sep-2018.

K. Anoune, A. Laknizi, M. Bouya, A. Astito, and A. Ben Abdellah, Sizing a PV-Wind based hybrid system using deterministic approach, Energy Convers. Manag., 2018.

Y. Sawle, S. C. Gupta, and A. K. Bohre, Review of hybrid renewable energy systems with comparative analysis of off-grid hybrid system, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 81. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 2217–2235, 01-Jan-2018.

V. Khare, S. Nema, and P. Baredar, Solar–wind hybrid renewable energy system: A review, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 58, pp. 23–33, May 2016.

S. M. Dawoud, X. Lin, and M. I. Okba, Hybrid renewable microgrid optimization techniques: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 82. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 2039–2052, 01-Feb-2018.

F. Blaabjerg and K. Ma, Wind Energy Systems, Proc. IEEE, vol. 105, no. 11, pp. 2116–2131, Nov. 2017.

H. Allamehzadeh, Wind energy history, technology and control, in 2016 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability, SusTech 2016, 2017, pp. 119–126.

A. D. Hansen, Wind Turbine Technologies, in Wind Energy Engineering: A Handbook for Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines, Elsevier Inc., 2017, pp. 145–160.

D. Kumar and K. Chatterjee, A review of conventional and advanced MPPT algorithms for wind energy systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 55. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 957–970, 01-Mar-2016.

J. P. Ram, N. Rajasekar, and M. Miyatake, Design and overview of maximum power point tracking techniques in wind and solar photovoltaic systems: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 73. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 1138–1159, 2017.

S. Eriksson, J. Kjellin, and H. Bernhoff, Tip speed ratio control of a 200 kW VAWT with synchronous generator and variable DC voltage, Energy Sci. Eng., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 135–143, Dec. 2013.

H. Yokoyama, F. Tatsuta, and S. Nishikata, Tip speed ratio control of wind turbine generating system connected in series, in 2011 International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, ICEMS 2011, 2011.

T. Nakamura, S. Morimoto, M. Sanada, and Y. Takeda, Optimum control of IPMSG for wind generation system, in Proceedings of the Power Conversion Conference-Osaka 2002, PCC-Osaka 2002, 2002, vol. 3, pp. 1435–1440.

M. A. Abdullah, A. H. M. Yatim, C. W. Tan, and R. Saidur, A review of maximum power point tracking algorithms for wind energy systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 5. pp. 3220–3227, Jun-2012.

R. Tiwari and N. R. Babu, Fuzzy logic based MPPT for permanent magnet synchronous generator in wind energy conversion system, IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 462–467, 2016.

R. Aubrée, F. Auger, M. Macé, and L. Loron, Design of an efficient small wind-energy conversion system with an adaptive sensorless MPPT strategy, Renew. Energy, vol. 86, pp. 280–291, Feb. 2016.

D. Zammit, C. S. Staines, A. Micallef, M. Apap, and J. Licari, Incremental Current Based MPPT for a PMSG Micro Wind Turbine in a Grid-Connected DC Microgrid, in Energy Procedia, 2017, vol. 142, pp. 2284–2294.

H. H. H. Mousa, A. R. Youssef, and E. E. M. Mohamed, Hybrid and adaptive sectors P&O MPPT algorithm based wind generation system, Renew. Energy, vol. 145, pp. 1412–1429, Jan. 2020.

Echchaachouai, A., El Hani, S., Hammouch, A., Sensorless Strategy of a Two-Level MPPT for Permanent Magnet Wind Generation System Using SRF-PLL, (2018) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 11 (1), pp. 15-23.

Lahlou, Z., Berrada, Y., Boumhidi, I., Nonlinear Feedback Control for a Complete Wind Energy Conversion System, (2019) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 12 (3), pp. 136-144.

El Malah, M., Ba-razzouk, A., Abdelmounim, E., Madark, M., Robust Nonlinear Sensorless MPPT Control with Unity Power Factor for Grid Connected DFIG Wind Turbines, (2018) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 11 (5), pp. 313-324.

Srivastava, A., Bajpai, R., An Efficient Maximum Power Extraction Algorithm for Wind Energy Conversion System Using Model Predictive Control, (2019) International Journal on Energy Conversion (IRECON), 7 (3), pp. 93-107.

Sabiri, Z., Machkour, N., Rabbah, N., Nahid, M., Kheddioui, E., Command of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator with a Backstepping Controller for a Wind Turbine Application, (2017) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 10 (1), pp. 56-62.

Lhachimi, H., Sayouti, Y., Elkouari, Y., The Comparison and Analysis of the DFIG Behavior Under PI, Fuzzy and Sliding Mode Controllers for Wind Energy Conversion System in the Grid Connected Mode, (2018) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 11 (3), pp. 113-123.

S. M. Schoenung and J. O. Keller, Commercial potential for renewable hydrogen in California, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 42, no. 19, pp. 13321–13328, May 2017.

W. M. Budzianowski et al., Business models and innovativeness of potential renewable energy projects in Africa, Renew. Energy, vol. 123, pp. 162–190, Aug. 2018.

U. Bulut and G. Muratoglu, Renewable energy in Turkey: Great potential, low but increasing utilization, and an empirical analysis on renewable energy-growth nexus, Energy Policy, vol. 123, pp. 240–250, Dec. 2018.

A. Tavana et al., Toward renewable and sustainable energies perspective in Iran, Renew. Energy, vol. 139, pp. 1194–1216, Aug. 2019.

H. Nfaoui, J. Buret, and A. A. M. Sayigh, Wind characteristics and wind energy potential in Morocco, Sol. Energy, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 51–60, Jul. 1998.

T. Bouhal et al., Technical feasibility of a sustainable Concentrated Solar Power in Morocco through an energy analysis, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2018.

IRESEN–Institut de Recherche en Energie Solaire et Energies Nouvelles. [Online]. [Accessed: 17-Jul-2020].

Projets [Online]. [Accessed: 26-Dec-2019].

M. De Lellis, R. Reginatto, R. Saraiva, and A. Trofino, The Betz limit applied to Airborne Wind Energy, Renew. Energy, 2018.

G. Nikitas, S. Bhattacharya, N. Vimalan, H. E. Demirci, N. Nikitas, and P. Kumar, Wind power: A sustainable way to limit climate change, in Managing Global Warming, 2018.

A. Rauh and W. Seelert, The Betz optimum efficiency for windmills, Appl. Energy, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 1984.

Y. Xia, K. H. Ahmed, and B. W. Williams, Wind turbine power coefficient analysis of a new maximum power point tracking technique, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 1122–1132, 2013.

J. K. Kaldellis and D. P. Zafirakis, Trends, prospects, and r&d directions in wind turbine technology, in Comprehensive Renewable Energy, vol. 2, Elsevier Ltd, 2012, pp. 671–724.

V. Yaramasu, B. Wu, P. C. Sen, S. Kouro, and M. Narimani, High-power wind energy conversion systems: State-of-the-art and emerging technologies, Proc. IEEE, pp. 740–788, May 2015.

A. Beainy, C. Maatouk, N. Moubayed, and F. Kaddah, Comparison of different types of generator for wind energy conversion system topologies, in 2016 3rd International Conference on Renewable Energies for Developing Countries, REDEC 2016, 2016.

D. S. L. Simonetti, A. E. A. Amorim, and F. D. C. Oliveira, Doubly Fed Induction Generator in Wind Energy Conversion Systems, in Advances in Renewable Energies and Power Technologies, vol. 1, Elsevier, 2018, pp. 461–490.

S. Mouty and C. Espanet, Development of permanent magnet generators to integrate wind turbines into electricity transmission and distribution networks, in Eco-friendly Innovation in Electricity Transmission and Distribution Networks, Elsevier Inc., 2015, pp. 243–262.

A. Rashad, S. Kamel, and F. Jurado, The Basic Principles of Wind Farms, in Distributed Generation Systems: Design, Operation and Grid Integration, 2017.

J. B. Kogut, Physics According to Newton-A World With No Speed Limit, in Special Relativity, Electrodynamics, and General Relativity, 2018.

S. Chattopadhyay, M. Mitra, and S. Sengupta, Electric Power Quality, Power Syst., vol. 62, 2011.

S. M. Tripathi, A. N. Tiwari, and D. Singh, Grid-integrated permanent magnet synchronous generator based wind energy conversion systems: A technology review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 51. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 1288–1305, 03-Aug-2015.

S.-H. Kim, Vector control of alternating current motors, in Electric Motor Control, Elsevier, 2017, pp. 203–246.

G. Lindfield and J. Penny, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms, in Introduction to Nature-Inspired Optimization, Elsevier, 2017, pp. 49–68.

Chaudhary, R., Singh, A., Agrawal, S., Stabilizing Controller Design for Nonlinear Power System Using Particle Swarm Optimization, (2017) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 10 (5), pp. 433-442.

Debnath, M., Sinha, S., Mallick, R., Application of Fuzzy-PIDF Controller for Automatic Generation Control Using Termite Correlation PSO Algorithm, (2017) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 10 (5), pp. 380-389.

Wahjono, E., Anggriawan, D., Sunarno, E., Nugraha, S., Tjahjono, A., Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Module for Battery Charging Based on Modified Particle Swarm Optimization, (2017) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 10 (1), pp. 77-84.

Taleb, M., Cherkaoui, M., Optimal Control of Active and Reactive Powers in Wind Energy Conversion Systems Using Particle Swarm Optimization and Adaptive Sliding Mode Control, (2018) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 11 (5), pp. 248-254.

R. Eberhart and J. Kennedy, New optimizer using particle swarm theory, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Micro Machine and Human Science, 1995, pp. 39–43.

X.-S. Yang, Particle Swarm Optimization, in Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms, Elsevier, 2014, pp. 99–110.

D. Zhou, Y. Song, and F. Blaabjerg, Control of Wind Turbine System, in Control of Power Electronic Converters and Systems, Elsevier, 2018, pp. 269–298.

K.-B. Lee, H.-U. Shin, and Y. Bak, Basic Control of AC Motor Drives, in Control of Power Electronic Converters and Systems, Elsevier, 2018, pp. 301–329.

Y. El Khchine, M. Sriti, and N. E. El Kadri Elyamani, Evaluation of wind energy potential and trends in Morocco, Heliyon, vol. 5, no. 6, p. e01830, Jun. 2019.

Global Wind Atlas. [Online]. [Accessed: 17-Jul-2020].

S. A. Kalogirou, Wind Energy Systems, in Solar Energy Engineering, Elsevier, 2014, pp. 735-762.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize