Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Sun Tracking Based on Hybrid Control with High Accuracy and Low Consumption

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system needs a dual-axis sun tracking system with high precision to track the sun position. This is because the power generated by small solar multijunction cells with concentrators lens drops dramatically once the pointing angle position error exceeds maximum acceptance angle of less than 1°. In this present paper, a sun tracking unit based on optimized Hybrid control has been realized to improve the tracking accuracy and reactivity of a dual-axis tracking unit in CPV systems. The hybrid control system including two strategies based on closed-loop algorithm to communicate with LDRs sensors as well as an open loop algorithm based on astronomical equations is implemented and tested. The circuit of the hardware part related to the hybrid sun tracker has been carefully designed in such way the sun tracking continues along azimuth axis and the elevation axis in both clear and cloudy sky throughout the day. We first report the results of experimental analyses and comparison of tracking accuracy between the closed and open loop. Based on these results, the strategy of hybrid solution is proposed and implemented. The results of drivers consumption of the developed hybrid solar tracker indicate a low power consumption with a total energy of 3.66Wh along altitude axis and 3.03Wh along azimuth axis in the day. The tracking accuracy of hybrid control is less than ±0.4° along the two axes.
Copyright © 2017 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Sun Tracking; Hybrid Control; High Accuracy; CPV System

Full Text:



T. Tsoutsos, N. Frantzeskaki and V. Gekas, Environmental Impacts from the Solar Energy Technology, Energy Policy, Vol. 33(Issue 3): 289–296, February 2005.

A. J. Nozik, G. Conibeer, M. C Beard, Advanced Concepts in Photovoltaics (2014).

D. D. C. Lu and V. G. Agelidis, Photovoltaic-Battery-Powered DC Bus System for Common Portable Electronic Devices, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 24(Issue 3): 849-855, March 2009.

A. Kelly and L.Gibson, Improved Photovoltaic Energy Output for Cloudy Conditions with a Solar Tracking System, Energy Policy, Vol. 83(Issue 11): 2092-2102, November 2009.

A. Martí and A. Luque, Next Generation Photovoltaics: High Efficiency through Full Spectrum Utilization, Series in Optics and Optoelectronics (2003).

Y. Kim, S. Kang and R. Winston, Tracking Control of High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Minimizing Power Losses, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 22 (Issue 9): 1001–1009, September 2014.

H. Mousazadeh, A. Keyhani, A. Javadi, H. Mobli, K. Abrinia and Ahmad Sharifi, A Review of Principle and Sun-Tracking Methods for Maximizing Solar Systems Output, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 13(Issue 8): 1800-1818, 2009.

Fuzzy Controller Design using FPGA for Sun Tracking in Solar Array System, International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications, Vol. 4(Issue 1): 46-52, February 2012.

L. Hu Zhang Shan, W. Zhen-biao and G. Feng-ju, A New Solar Tracking System of HCPV Based on Zigbee, 3rd International Conference on Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 53, pp. 844-846, November 2010.

S. R Nayak, C. R Pradhan, Solar Tracking Application, IOSR Journal of Engineering, Vol. 2(Issue 6): 1278-1281, June 2012.

Abadi, I., Musyafa’, A., Soeprijanto, A., Design and Implementation of Active Two Axes Solar Tracking System Using Particle Swarm Optimization Based Fuzzy Logic Controller, (2015) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 8 (6), pp. 640-652.

L. Hu Zhang Shan, W. Zhen-biao and G. Feng-ju, High–Precision Solar Tracking System, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, Vol. 2, pp. 2-17, June 2010.

N. Xie, A. J. P. Theuwissen, Low-power high-accuracy micro-digital sun sensor by means of a CMOS image sensor, Journal of Electronic Imaging, Vol. 22 (Issue 3): September 2013.

M.H.M. Sidek, N. Azis, W.Z.W. Hasan, M.Z.A. Ab Kadir, S. Shafie, M.A.M. Radzi, Automated Positioning Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System with Precision elevation and azimuth angle control, Energy, Vol. 124: 160-170, July 2007.

Abadi, I., Musyafa, A., Soeprijanto, A., Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller Based PV Passive Two-Axis Solar Tracking System, (2015) International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), 10 (3), pp. 390-398.

R. Grena, an Algorithm for the Computation of the Solar Position, Solar Energy, Vol. 82(Issue 5): 462-470, May 2008.

I. Reda and A. Andreas, Solar position algorithm for solar radiation applications, Solar Energy, Vol. 76 (Issue 5): 577-589, 2004.

M. Blanco-Muriel, D. C. Alarcón-Padilla, T. López-Moratalla, and M. Lara-Coira, Computing the solar vector, Solar Energy, Vol. 70 (Issue 5): 431-441, 2001.

P. Armstrong, M. Izygon, An Innovative Software for Analysis of Sun Position Algorithms, Energy Procedia, Vol. 49, pp. 2444-2453, 2014.

F.R. Rubio, M.G. Ortega, F. Gordillo, M. López-Martínez, Application of new control strategy for sun tracking, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 48 (Issue 7): 2174-2184, July 2007.

J. Song, Y. Yang, Y. Zhu, Z. Jin, A high precision tracking system based on a hybrid strategy designed for concentrated sunlight transmission via fibers, Renewable Energy, Vol. 57: 12-19, September 2013.

I. Luque-Heredia , G. Quéméré, R. Cervantes, O. Laurent, E. Chiappori and J. Ying Chong, The Sun Tracker in Concentrator Photovoltaics (Springer, 2014, pp. 61-93).

N. Barsoum, Implementation of a Prototype for a Traditional Solar Tracking System, Third UKSim European Symposium on Computer Modeling and Simulation, pp. 23-30, November 2009.

A. Argeseanu, E. Ritchie and K. Leban, A New Solar Position Sensor Using Low Cost Photosensors Matrix for Tracking Systems, Wseas Transactions on power systems, Vol. 4 (Issue 6): 189-198, June 2009.

B. Stafford, M. Davis, J. Chambers, M. Martínez, D. Sanchez, Tracker accuracy: field experience, analysis, and correlation with meteorological conditions, 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 002256-002259, June 2009.

M. Fawzi Al-Naima and R. Bilal Al-Taee, An FPGA Based Stand-alone Solar Tracking System, IEEE International Energy Conference, pp. 513-518, December 2010.

S. Das, S. Chakraborty, P. K. Sadhu, and O.S. Sastry, Design and experimental execution of a microcontroller (μC)-based smart dual-axis automatic solar tracking system, Energy Science & Engineering, Vol. 3 (Issue 6): 558–564, November 2015.

R.G. Vieira, F. K. O. M. V. Guerra, M. R. B. G. Vale and M. M. Araújo, Comparative performance analysis between static solar panels and Single-axis tracking system on a hot climate region near to the equator, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Vol. 64: 672-681, October 2016.

C. W. Tao, M. Y. Lin, C. C. Chuang, T. T. Lee and C. W. Chang, Design of a DSP-based biaxial solar tracking system, 7th International Conference on Soft Computing and Intelligent Systems and 15th International Symposium on Advanced Intelligent Systems conference, pp. 892-895, December 2014.

R.G. Vieira, F. K. O. M. V. Guerra, M. R. B. G. Vale and M. M. Araújo, Novel Loss Reduction Pulse width Modulation Technique for Brushless dc Motor Drives Fed by MOSFET Inverter, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 24 (Issue 3): 849-855, March 2009.

A. Soteris Kalogirou, Solar Energy Engineering 2nd Edition (Elsevier, 2014).

K. E. Holbert and D. Srinivasan, Solar Energy Calculations (2011, pp. 189-204).

W. Jiunn-Chi and L. Wu-Chun , High accuracy sun-tracking using CCD and field test for PV system, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1556, pp. 214-217, September 2013.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize