Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Design and Control of a Robotic Platform for Dexterous Minimally Invasive Surgical Applications

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



In this article, a novel robotic platform for robotic assisted minimally invasive surgical operations is presented. The platform consists of a 3 Degree-of-Freedom (DoF) passive tool holder and a 12 DoF robotic probe for dexterous motion upon insertion. The developed prototype is presented in terms of its mechatronic and kinematic structure. Regarding actuation, a hybrid solution comprising of servo-motors for the extraoperative part of the robot and shape-memory-alloy actuators for the intraoperative probe is adopted. The latter are evaluated in terms of establishing an efficient antagonistic tendon-driven actuation control scheme. The robotic platform is in-vitro evaluated under a human-in-the-loop control scheme using a teleoperation device. Additionally, custom developed software for physicians’ training and pre-operative planning with the robot is presented.
Copyright © 2017 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Robot Assisted Surgery; Redundant Surgical Tool; Shape Memory Alloys; Novint Falcon; Teleoperation; Haptic Feedback

Full Text:



G. S. Guthart, and J.K. Salisbury, The Intuitive telesurgery system, overview and application, Proceedings 2000 ICRA. Millennium Conference. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. Symposia Proceedings (Cat. No.00CH37065), Vol. 1, pp. 618-621, San Francisco, CA, USA, April 2000.

K. Cleary, and C. Nguyen, State of the art in surgical robotics: Clinical applications and technology challenges, Computer Aided Surgery, Vol. 6(Issue 1):312-318, Apr 2001.

R. Taylor, H. Menciassi, G. Fichtinger, and P. Dario, Medical Robotics and Computer Integrated Surgery (Springer Handbook of Robotics, 2008).

J. Troccaz, U. Hagn, M. Nickl, S. Jörg, G. Passig, T. Bahls, A. Nothhelfer, F. Hacker, L. Tien, and A. Albu-Schäffer, and others, The DLR MIRO: A versatile lightweight robot for surgical applications, Industrial Robot: An international Journal, Vol. 35(Issue 4):324-336, 2001.

B. Kehoe, G. Kahn, J. Mahler, J. Kim, A. Lee, K. Nakagawa, S. Patil, W. D. Boyd, P. Abbeel, and K. Goldberg, Autonomous multilateral debridement with the Raven surgical robot, 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp. 1432-1439, Hong Kong, China, May 2014.

Z. Nawrat, and P. Kostka, Polish cardio-robot ‘Robin Heart’. System description and technical evaluation, The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, Vol. 2(Issue 1):36-44, March 2006.

L. van den Bedem, R. Hendrix, N. Rosielle, M. Steinbuch, and H. Nijmeijer, Design of a minimally invasive surgical teleoperated master-slave system with haptic feedback, 2009 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, ICMA, pp. 60-65, Changchun, Jilin, China, August 2009.

A. C. Lehman, N. A. Wood, S. Farritor, M. R. Goede, D. Oleynikov, Dexterous miniature robot for advanced minimally invasive surgery, Surgical Endoscopy, Vol. 25(Issue 1):119-123, 2011.

S. Tognarelli, M. Salerno, G. Tortora, C. Quaglia, P. Dario, and A. Menciassi, An endoluminal robotic platform for Minimally Invasive Surgery, 2012 4th IEEE RAS EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), pp. 7-12, Roma, Italy, June 2012.

E. A. Arkenbout, P. W.J. Henselmans, F. Jelinek, and P. Breedveld, A state of the art review and categorization of multi-branched instruments for NOTES and SILS, Surgical Endoscopy, Vol. 29(Issue 6):1281-1296, 2015.

V. Vitiello, S. L. Lee, T. P. Cundy, and G. Z. Yang, Emerging Robotic Platforms for Minimally Invasive Surgery, IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 6:111-126, 2013.

J. Shang, D. P. Noonan, C. Payne, J. Clark, M.H. Sodergren, A. Darzi, and G. Z. Yang, An articulated universal joint based flexible access robot for minimally invasive surgery, 2011 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1147-1152, Shanghai, China, May 2011.

O. Takeyoshi, A. Degani, D. Schwartzman, B. Zubiate, J. McGarvey, H. Choset, and M. A. Zenati, A Highly Articulated Robotic Surgical System for Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Vol. 87(Issue 4):1253-1256, 2009.

S. Matich, C. Neupert, A. Kirschniak, H. F. Schlaak, P. P. Pott, A new single-port robotic system based on a parallel kinematic structure, 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), pp. 236-241, Hamburg, Germany, September 2015.

M. Niccolini, G. Petroni, A. Menciassi, and P. Dario, Real-time control architecture of a novel Single-Port lapaRoscopy bimaNual roboT (SPRINT), 2012 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp.3395-3400, Minnesota, USA, May 2012.

K. S. Roh, S. Yoonand, Y. Do Kwon, Y. Shim, and Y.-J. Kim, Single-Port Surgical Robot System with Flexible Surgical Instruments, (Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 447-459).

C. Bergeles, and G. Z. Yang, From Passive Tool Holders to Microsurgeons: Safer, Smaller, Smarter Surgical Robots, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 61(Issue 5):1565-1576, May 2014.

S. Avgousti, E. G. Christoforou, A. S. Panayides, S. Voskarides, C. Novales, L. Nouaille, C. S. Pattichis, and P. Vieyres, Medical telerobotic systems: current status and future trends, Biomedical engineering online, Volume 15(Issue 1), pp 96, 2016.

T. Cuntz, and L. Comella, Design and control of a 3-DOF hydraulic driven surgical instrument, Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 1(Issue 1), pp. 140-144, 2015.

D. Berg, and P. Li, Achieving dexterous manipulation for minimally invasive surgical robots through the use of hydraulics, ASME 2012 5th Annual Dynamic Systems and Control Conference joint with the JSME 2012 11th Motion and Vibration Conference, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, October 2012.

D. Haragushi, K. Tadano, and K. Kawashima, Development of a Pneumatically-Driven Robotic Forceps with a Flexible Wrist Joint, Procedia CIRP, Volume 5, pp. 61-65, 2013.

C. Mavroidis, C. Pfeiffer, and M. Mosley, Conventional actuators, shape memory alloys, and electrorheological fluids, Journal of Automation, miniature robotics, and sensors for nondestructive testing and evaluation, Volume 14(Issue 1), pp. 189-192, 2000.

M. Follador, M. Cianchetti, A. Arienti, and C. Laschi, A general method for the design and fabrication of shape memory alloy active spring actuators, Smart Materials and Structures, Volume 21(Issue 11), 2012.

M. Ivanescu, N. Bizdoaca, and D. Pana, Dynamic control for a tentacle manipulator with SMA actuators, Robotics and Automation 2003. Proceedings. ICRA ’03. IEEE International Conference, Vol. 2, pp. 2079-2084, Taipei, Taiwan, September 2003.

A. Cuschieri, Variable curvature shape-memory spatula for laparoscopic surgery, Surgical Endoscopy, Volume 5(Issue 4): pp. 179-181, 1991.

V. R. C. Kode, M. C Cavusoglu, Design and characterization of a novel hybrid actuator using shape memory alloy and DC micromotor for minimally invasive surgery applications, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Volume 12(Issue 4), pp.455-464, 2007.

S. Zhao, Y. Luo, and M. Wang, Design of an SMA embedded clamp for endoscopic surgery, International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics, Volume 33(Issue 3-4): pp 973-978, 2010.

W. Makishi, T. Matunaga, Y. Haga, and M. Esashi, Active bending electric endoscope using shape memory alloy coil actuators, Proc. First IEEE/RAS-EMBS Int. Conf. Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics BioRob 2006, pp 217-219, Pisa, Italy, February 2006.

K. Lee, G.-Y. Lee, J.-O. Choi, R. Wu, and S.-H. Ahn, Design and fabrication of a smart flexible structure using shape memory alloy wire, Biomedical Robotics and BioMechatronics (BioRob), 2010 3rd IEEE RAS and EMBS International Conference, pp. 599-603, Tokyo, Japan, September 2010.

P. Giataganas, N. Evangeliou, Y. Koveos, E. Kelasidi, and A. Tzes, Design and experimental evaluation of an innovative SMA-based tendon-driven redundant endoscopic robotic surgical tool, Control Automation (MED), 2011 19th Mediterranean Conference on, pp. 1071-1075, Corfu, Greece, June 2011.

M. Ho, A. McMillan, J. Simard, R. Gullapalli, and J. Desai, Toward a meso-scale SMA-actuated MRI-compatible neurosurgical robot, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Volume 28(Issue 1): pp. 213-222, February 2012.

E. Tzorakoleftherakis, A. Mavrommati and A. Tzes, Design and Implementation of a Binary Redundant Manipulator with Cascaded Modules, Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics, Volume 8, 2016.

E. Kolyvas, Y. Koveos, and A. Tzes, Sliding Mode-based Control of Thin Shape Memory Alloy Actuators using a Spatial Hysteresis Approximation, Mechatronics, Vol. 40, pp. 115-127, November 2016.

K. Andrianesis, and A. Tzes, `Development and Control of a Multifunctional Prosthetic Hand with Shape Memory Alloy Actuators, International Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Volume 78(Issue 2): pp. 257-289, 2015.

J. C. Hannen, J. H. Crews, and G. D. Buckner, Indirect intelligent sliding mode control of a shape memory alloy actuated flexible beam using hysteretic recurrent neural networks, Smart Materials and Structures, Volume 21(Issue 8): pp. 085015, 2012.

Directed Perception Inc, 2012, PTU-D46 Unit

ROBOTIS, 2017, Dynamixel MX-Series motor

J. H. Jung, N. Pan, and T. J. Kang, Generalized capstan problem: bending rigidity, nonlinear friction, and extensibility effect, Tribology International, Volume 41(Issue 6): pp. 524-534, 2008.

K. Schittkowski, NQPL: A Fortran subroutine solving constrained nonlinear programming problems, Annals of operations research, Volume 5(Issue 1): pp. 485-500, 1986.

F. Conti, F. Barbagli, R. Balaniuk, M. Halg, C. Lu, D. Morris, L. Sentis, J. Warren, O. Khatib, and K. Salisbury, The CHAI libraries, Proceedings of Eurohaptics, pp. 496-500, Dublin, Ireland, 2003.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2024 Praise Worthy Prize