Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Shadow and Mirror Mode Bilateral Control for a Tele-Operated Robot System

(*) Corresponding author

Authors' affiliations



This paper proposes the development of haptic robot system for rehabilitation exercises. Recently, haptic communication is widely applied in a robot system for sensing the force between robot and human operator. The bilateral control which consists of master and slave robot is used to transfer and receive action/ reaction force and position information. In this paper, the controlling of robot has been designed by considering the specification requirements of user. This master-slave robot system can be controlled by two different approaches: 1) by using the shadow mode and 2) by using the mirror mode. In the force control designed, such force sensor can use to measure the external force. It is shown that the reaction force response can be controlled. However, the problem of sensor noise and bandwidth are deteriorated the performance not only at the master or slave side but also at the whole control system. Thus, disturbance observer (DOB) has been proposed and used instead of force sensor for improve the performance and robustness of the whole system. In this study, the shadow and mirror mode of bilateral control is used with the master-slave robot for rehabilitation exercise. On the shadow mode slave robot is controlled according to the master robot like a shadow while mirror mode, slave robot has moved in the opposite direction like a reflection image. The results of each mode are represented in an experimental result. By using the proposed robot system, it is possible to apply in the rehabilitation process.
Copyright © 2017 Praise Worthy Prize - All rights reserved.


Disturbance Observer; Bilateral Control System; Master-Slave Robot; Shadow Mode; Mirror Mode

Full Text:



Bertoluzzo, M., Bolognesi, P., Bruno, O., Buja, G., Castellan, S., Isastia, V., Menis, R., Meo, S., A distributed Driving and Steering system for Electric Vehicles using rotary-linear motors, (2010) SPEEDAM 2010 - International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, art. no. 5542282, pp. 1086-1093.

Cherifi, K., Hariche, K., Review of MIMO minimal realization techniques and case study on SCARA robot manipulator, (2017) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 10 (2), pp. 168-177.

J. E. Leu; S.-T. Liu; Y.-H. Chen; W.-P. Shih, “Development of a humanoid robot foot with distributive force sensors” 2017 3rd International Conference on Control, Automation and Robotics (ICCAR), pp: 134 – 137, 2017

H. Kobayashi, S. Katsura, K. Ohnishi "An Analysis of Parameter Variations of Disturbance Observer for Motion Control" IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 6, December 2007.

S. Katsura, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Ohnishi, “Modeling of force sensing and validation of disturbance observer for force control,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 530–538, Feb. 2007.

S. Katsura, Y Matsumoto, and K. Ohnishi, "Analysis and Experiment Validation of Force Bandwidth for Force Control," IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, vol.53, no.3, pp.922-928, Jun. 2006.

A. E. Saddik : “The Potential of Haptics Technologies,” IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 10–17, Feb. 2007.

T. Suzuyama, S. Katsura, K. Ohishi, “Haptic Information Sharing by Multilateral Control”, IEEE, 2006.

R. J. Adams and B. Hannaford, “Stable haptic interaction with virtual environments,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 465–474, Jun. 1999.

S. Katsura, Y. Matsumoto, and K. Ohnishi : “Realization of “Law of Action and Reaction” by Multilateral Control,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 52, No. 5, pp. 1196–1205, 2005.

D. A. Lawrence : “Stability and Transparency in Bilateral Teleoperation,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 9, No. 5,pp. 624–637, 1993.

C. Mitsantisuk, K. Ohishi, and S. Katsura, "Estimation of action/reaction forces for the bilateral control using kalman filter," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 4383-4393, November 2012.

Y. Uchimura and T. Yakoh, “Bilateral robot system on the real-time network structure,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 940–946, Oct. 2004.

Stapornchaisit, S., Mitsantisuk, C., Micro-macro bilateral control in Delta Robot, (2015) International Review of Automatic Control (IREACO), 8 (4), pp. 289-299.

Heikkinen, J.E., Handroos, H., Design of a human machine interface for a mobile machine using simulation in virtual reality environment, (2013) International Review on Modelling and Simulations (IREMOS), 6 (1), pp. 284-290.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Please send any question about this web site to
Copyright © 2005-2023 Praise Worthy Prize