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Optimum Orientation Angles for Photovoltaic Arrays to Maximize Energy Gain at Near Equator Location in Indonesia

Rudi Kurnianto(1*), Ayong Hiendro(2), Muhammad Ismail Yusuf(3)

(1) Department of Electrical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Tanjungpura University, Indonesia
(2) Department of Electrical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Tanjungpura University, Indonesia
(3) Department of Electrical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Tanjungpura University, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding author



Photovoltaic (PV) performance is affected by its orientation angle. Estimating optimum orientation angles for PV arrays is necessary in order to obtain maximum solar radiation and PV output. Meteorological data during the period of 2008-2014 are used to develop empirical correlation of the diffuse fraction on a horizontal surface in Pontianak, Indonesia (latitude 0.0263( S). MATLAB software is used to simulate the total solar radiation incident on a surface facing due north with an optimum tilt angle. The maximum annual solar energy is 1893 kWh/m2/year by adjusting PV arrays monthly. The loss of energy is about 0.27 % and 1.34 % when a tilt angle is adjusted seasonally and yearly in comparison to the monthly optimum tilt angle. It is also found that the value of capacity utilization factor (CUF) of the PV system for Pontianak is 19.57 % - 19.83 %, while the performance ratio (PR) is 79.44 % - 79.47 % at the optimum orientation angles.
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Capacity Utilization Factor; Optimum Tilt Angle; Orientation Angle; Photovoltaic; Solar Energy

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